The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Archer, M., P. Murray, S. Hand, and H. Godthelp. 1993. Reconsideration of monotreme relationships based on the skull and dentition of the Miocence Obduron dicksoni. Pages 75-94 in Mammal Phylogeny. Volume 1. Mesozoic Differentiation, Multituberculates, Monotremes, Early Eutherians, and Marsupials. (F. S. Szalay, M. J. Novacek, and M. C. McKenna, eds.). Springer Verlag, New York.
  • Archer, M., T. F. Flannery, A. Ritchie, and R. E. Molnar. 1985. First Mesozoic mammal from Australia-An early Cretaceous monotreme. Nature 318:363-366.
  • Augee, M. L., ed. 1992. Platypus and Echidnas. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.
  • Flannery, T. F., M. Archer, T. H. Rich, and R. Jones. A new family of monotremes from the Cretaceous of Australia. Nature 377:418-420.
  • Gemmell, N. J., T.R. Grant, P.S. Western, J. Walmsley, J. M. Watson, N.D. Murray, and J.A. Marshall Graves. 1995. Determining platypus relationships. Australian Journal of Zoology 43:283-291.
  • Griffiths, M. 1978. The Biology of the Monotremes. Academic Press, New York.
  • Griffiths, M. 1999. Monotremes. Pages 295–302 in Encyclopedia of Reproduction, vol. 3. J.D. Neill, ed. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Grützner, F. and J.A. Marshall Graves. 2004. A platypus’ eye view of the mammalian genome. Current Opinion in Genetics & Development 14(6):642-649.
  • Grützner, F., J. Deakin, W. Rens, N. El-Mogharbel and J.A. Marshall Graves. 2003. The monotreme genome: a patchwork of reptile, mammal and unique features? Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. Molecular and Integreative Physiology 136(4):867–881.
  • Macrini, T. E., T. Rowe, and M. Archer. 2006. Description of a cranial endocast from a fossil platypus, Obdurodon dicksoni (Monotremata, Ornithorhynchidae), and the relevance of endocranial characters to monotreme monophyly. Journal of Morphology 267(8):1000-1015.
  • Marshall-Graves, J. A. 1996. Mammals that break the rules: genetics of marsupials and monotremes. Annual Review of Genetics 30:233–266.
  • Musser, A. M. 2003. Review of the monotreme fossil record and comparison of palaeontological and molecular data. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. Molecular and Integreative Physiology 136(4):927-942.
  • Musser, A. M. and M. Archer. 1998. New information about the skull and dentary of the Miocene platypus Obdurodon dicksoni, and a discussion of ornithorhynchid relationships. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B 353:1063-1079.
  • Pascual, R. M. Archer, E. O. Juareguizar, J. L. Prado, H. Godthelp, and S. J. Hand. 1992. First discovery of monotremes in South America. Nature 356:704-706.
  • Retief, J. D., R. J. Winkfein, and G. H. Dixon. 1993. Evolution of the monotremes - the sequences of the protamine p1 genes of platypus and echidna. European Journal of Biochemistry 218:457-461.
  • Rich, T. H., J. A. Hopson, A. M. Musser, T. F. Flannery, and P. Vickers-Rich. 2005. Independent origins of middle ear bones in monotremes and therians. Science 307:910-914.
  • Rowe, T., T. H. Rich, P. Vickers-Rich, M. Springer, and M. O. Woodburne. 2008. The oldest platypus and its bearing on divergence timing of the platypus and echidna clades. Proceeding of the National Academy of Science (USA)105(4):1238-1242.
  • Simpson, George Gaylord. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, vol. 85. xvi + 350
  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World. Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142


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