The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Augee, M. L. and B. Gooden. 1993. Echidnas of Australia and New Guinea. Australian Natural History Series, NSW University Press.
  • Augee, M. L., ed. 1992. Platypus and Echidnas. Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales.
  • Flannery, T. F. and C. P. Groves. 1998. A revision of the genus Zaglossus (Monotremata, Tachyglossidae), with description of new species and subspecies. Mammalia 62:367-396.
  • Fowler, ME; Miller, RE. 2003. Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Co.
  • Griffiths, M. 1999. Monotremes. Pages 295–302 in Encyclopedia of Reproduction, vol. 3. J.D. Neill, ed. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Griffiths, M., R. T. Wells, and D. J. Barrie. 1991. Observations on the skulls of fossil and extant echidnas (Monotremata: Tachyglossidae). Australian Mammalogy 14:87-101.
  • Lee, M. H., R. Shroff, S. J. B. Cooper, and R. Hope. 1999. Evolution and molecular characterization of a beta-globin gene from the Australian echidna Tachyglossus aculeatus (Monotremata). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 12:205-214.
  • Musser, A. M. 2003. Review of the monotreme fossil record and comparison of palaeontological and molecular data. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A. Molecular and Integreative Physiology 136(4):927-942.
  • Nowak, Ronald M. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World, vol. 1, 5th ed. 1629
  • Retief, J. D., R. J. Winkfein, and G. H. Dixon. 1993. Evolution of the monotremes - the sequences of the protamine p1 genes of platypus and echidna. European Journal of Biochemistry 218:457-461.
  • Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World. Third Edition. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 1993. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 2nd ed., 3rd printing. xviii + 1207
  • Wilson, Don E., and DeeAnn M. Reeder, eds. 2005. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, 3rd ed., vols. 1 & 2. 2142


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