The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Holland, W. 1931. The Butterfly Book. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran and Company.
  • Häuser C., Holstein J., Kroupa A.S., Steiner A. & Turiault M. (eds) (2015). GloBIS (GART): Global Butterfly Information System (version Sep 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Iftner, D., J. Shuey, J. Calhoun. 1992. Butterflies and Skippers of Ohio. Ohio Biological Survey Bulletin Vol 9 No 1.
  • Maynard, C. 1891. Manual of North American Butterflies. Boston, MA: DeWolfe, Fiske, and Company.
  • Miller, J. 1992. The Common Names of North American Butterflies. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institute Press.
  • Nielsen, M. 1999. Michigan Butterflies and Skippers. East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Extension.
  • Opler, P., G. Krizek. 1984. Butterflies East of the Great Plains. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
  • Pelham, Jonathan P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, vol. 40. xiv + 658
  • Scott, J. 1986. The Butterflies of North America: A Natural History and Field Guide. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.


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