The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. National Biodiversity Network Species Dictionary (September 2003) External link.
  • 2. Carter, D. (1992) Butterflies and moths. Dorling Kindersley, London.
  • 3. Asher, J., Warren, M., Fox, R., Harding, P., Jeffcoate, G. & Jeffcoate, S. (2001) The Millennium Atlas of Butterflies in Britain and Ireland. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • 4. Still, J. (1996) Collins Wild Guide: butterflies and moths of Britain and Europe. Harper Collins Publishers, London.
  • F., Gilbert., & S. Zalat.   (2007).  Butterflies of Egypt: Atlas, Red Data Listing & conservation, Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs, Cairo, Egypt..  
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2015. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (09/2015) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Häuser C., Holstein J., Kroupa A.S., Steiner A. & Turiault M. (eds) (2015). GloBIS (GART): Global Butterfly Information System (version Sep 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Pelham, Jonathan P. 2008. A catalogue of the butterflies of the United States and Canada with a complete bibliography of the descriptive and systematic literature. Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera, vol. 40. xiv + 658
  • Pieris rapae Linnaeus
  • Stavenga, D.G.; Arikawa, K. 2006. Evolution of color and vision of butterflies. Review. Arthropod Structure & Development. 35: 307-318.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!