The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
- Böhlke, E. B., J. E. Böhlke, M. M. Leiby, J. E. McCosker, et al. / Böhlke, Eugenia B., ed. 1989. Orders Anguilliformes and Saccopharyngiformes. Fishes of the Western North Atlantic, no. 1, pt. 9, vol. 1. xvii + 1-656
- Eschmeyer, William N. 1990. Genera of Recent Fishes. iii + 697
- Nat. ausl. Fische, 9, 83
- Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. xvii + 600
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