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Description

"Caryophyllia antarctica Marenzeller, 1903, p. 1 (nomen nudum); 1904a, pp. 293, 294, pi. 16, figs. 7, 7d.—Pax, 1910, pp. 65, 66, pi. 11, fig. 1.— Gravier, 1914b, pp. 129, 130, pi. 1, figs. 7, 8. —Wells, 1958, pp. 267, 268, pi. 2, figs. 3, 4. —Squires, 1961, p. 20; 1962b, pp. 13, 14, 16, 17, pi. 1, figs. 11, 12; 1969, pp. 16, 17, pi. 6, map 1.—Eguchi, 1965, pp. 7, 8, pi. la, lb. — Cairns, 1979, p. 206.

 

Caryophyllia clavus; Thomson and Rennet, 1931, p. 40.

 

Caryophyllia arcuata; Gardiner, 1939, pp. 331, 332.

 

Description. Corallum ceratoid to trochoid, usually straight, attached. Pedicel diameter one fifth to one third of GCD, expanding only slightly at substrate. Largest corallum examined 28.6 x 26.2 mm in CD and 36.5 mm tall; however, more typical coralla 10-15 mm in GCD and 15-20 mm tall. Theca usually smooth, porcelaneous, sometimes with flat, equal costae bordered by shallow intercostal striae. Costal granules rare; when present, low and rounded. Calice round to elliptical. Septa usually hexamerally arranged in four cycles. Si and S2 equal in size and exsertness; S3 and S4 progressively smaller. Larger coral la with up to 90 septa, accommodated by in crease in number of half systems and acceleration of higher-cycle septa instead of by addition of another cycle of smaller septa. Inner edges of S1, S2 and S4 slightly sinuous, those of S3 and P3 very sinuous. Septal granulation prominent, usually arranged in widely spaced rows on septal undulations oriented parallel to septal edge. Individual granules sometimes quite tall, with rounded, clavate, bifid, or squared-off tops. Granules usually fused into low, distinct carinae, these having continuous or serrated (beaded) upper edges. Carinae especially well developed near inner septal edges. Fossa shallow. Pali of varying widths (up to width of S3) stand before S3; each separated from its corresponding septum by deep, narrow notch. Pali sometimes split into two smaller lobes. Pali sometimes present before S1 and S2. Palar granulation similar to that of septa but more prominent; carinae running obliquely across palus. Columella composed of 4-20 discrete, slender, twisted ribbons aligned in greater axis of calicular ellipse.

 

Discussion. C. antarctica is distinguished by its distinctive septal ornamentation of carinae and squared-off granules. Thomson and Rennet's (1931) C. clavus is a typical specimen of C. antarctica.

 

Material. Eltanin sta. 138 (4), USNM 45677;sta. 416 (1), USNM 47307; sta. 428 (6), USNM 45670; sta. 678 (1), USNM 47291; sta. 992 (1), USNM 47306; sta. 1067 (1), USNM 47296; sta. 1081 (2), USNM 47301; sta. 1082 (4), USNM 47297; sta. 1084 (8), USNM 47317; sta. 1870 (11), USNM 47309; sta. 1883 (2), USNM 47289; sta. 1922 (1), USNM 47294; sta. 1930 (1), USNM 47311; sta. 1931 (1), USNM 47285; sta. 1933 (11), USNM 47304; sta. 1995 (25), USNM 47316; sta. 1966 (45), USNM 47315; sta. 2007 (1), USNM 47300; sta. 2022 (3), USNM 47205; sta. 2079 (3), USNM 47293; sta. 2104 (1), USNM 47668; sta. 2106 (1), USNM 47286; sta. 2119 (1), USNM 47288; sta. 5765 (6), USNM 47284. Islas Orcadas sta. 876-118 (1), USNM 47303. Hero sta. 721-849 (2), USNM 47308; sta. 731-1812 (1), USNM 47318. Velcho sta. 2-11 (5), USNM 53414. Glacier sta. 1 (1), USNM 47302. Edisto sta. 21 (1), USNM 47920; sta. 31 (2), USNM 47293; sta. 36 (1), USNM 47310. Staten Island sta. 21 (1), USNM 47298. Atka sta. 23 (42), USNM 47313. Burton Is land sta. 3 (20), USNM 47305. EW sta. 4 (1), USNM 47287; sta. 35 (5), USNM 47314. GLD sta. 15 (1), USNM 47299. Specimens (3) identified as Caryophyllia clavus by Thomson and Rennet (1931), Australian Museum G 13536; specimens of Wells (1958) from the following Discovery stations: sta. 39 (12), H 43; sta. 41 (3), H 46; sta. 40 (1), H 47 (all deposited at the South Australian Museum, Adelaide). Syntypes.

 

Types. Four syntypes collected by the Belgica (station 290 (3) and station 569 (1)) are deposited at the Brussels Museum. Another two syntypes from Valdivia station 127 are deposited at the Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin (5067). Type-locality: near Peter I Island, Antarctica, and off Bouvetoya; 567 m.

 

Distribution. Endemic to the Antarctic region, probably circumpolar. Squires's (1969) records from Subantarctic South America undocumented (Map 3). Depth range: 87-1435 m." Cairns 1982, Plate 3, figs. 7-9; Plate 4, figs. 1-4

 

 

 

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Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

Source: Antarctic Invertebrates Website (NMNH)

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