Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
"Caryophyllia eltaninae Cairns, 1982
Gardineria lilliei; Gardiner, 1939, pp. 328, 329 (part: two specimens from Discovery sta. 160).
Description. Corallum ceratoid to trochoid, attached or free. If attached, corallum usually straight, with reinforced pedicel up to 38% of GCD; if free, corallum often slightly bent, with an eroded base as small as 10% of GCD. Holotype (largest specimen) 26.8 x 23.5 mm in CD, 6.1 mm in PD, and 35.6 mm tall. Costae usually nongranulated and porcelaneous, bordered by thin intercostal striae. Cl-3 slightly ridged in some specimens. Calice round to elliptical. Septa hexamerally arranged in five cycles. Sl and S2 equal in size and exsertness; septa of higher cycles progressively smaller. Full fifth cycle attained at about 13.5 mm CD. Sl and S2 extending to columella; S5 rudimentary, with irregularly dentate inner edges. Inner edges of all septa and pali straight. Septal granules low and blunt, never arranged in carinae. Pali (12) occurring before S3 and variable in shape; usually tall and narrow, but sometimes triangular or twisted like a columellar ribbon. In about one fourth of specimens examined, paliform lobes also present on S4, often in form of small, horizontally projecting lobe directed at, and sometimes merging with, adjacent P3. Palar granulation more prominent than that of septa. Columella variable, composed of 4-30 discrete, twisted ribbons or fused mass of twisted elements aligned in greater axis of calicular ellipse.
Discussion. Gardiner's (1939) misidentification of this species as G. lilliei is a result of the small size of his species (CD = 9.8 x 9.8, 9.0 x 10.0 mm), which at this stage could be confused with Gardineria. His specimens were just beginning to form pali and S5; both specimens had only one palus, corresponding to the half systems where S5 had formed. C. eltaninae is unusual in that its pali occur before the antipenultimate septal cycle, not the penultimate as is common in most Caryophyllia. This is a character shared with the Caribbean C. paucipalata Moseley, 1881. It is further distinguished from C. antarctica and C. squiresi by its straight inner septal edges.
Etymology. This species is named after the R/V Eltanin, from which many of the specimens used in this study were collected, including the holotype of this species.
Material. Eltanin sta. 678 (2), USNM 47486; sta. 1535 (1), USNM 47485. Islas Orcadas sta. 575-8 (1), USNM 47487; sta. 575-10 (3), USNM 47490; sta. 575-12 (3), USNM 47489; sta. 575-14 (2), USNM 47488; sta. 575-17 (5), USNM 47484; sta. 57593 (2), USNM 47491. Specimens (2) identified as G. lilliei by Gardiner (1939), BM 19184.108.40.2066287. Types.
Types. The holotype, collected at Eltanin station 671, is deposited at the United States National Museum (47162). Thirty-nine paratypes from Eltanin station 671 (number 47163) and 11 paratypes from Islas Orcadas station 575-11 (number 47164) are also deposited at the United States National Museum. One paratype from Eltanin station 671 is also deposited at the Britisih Museum (19220.127.116.11.). Type-locality: 54º41'S, 38º38'W (off southwest South Georgia); 220-320 m.
Distribution. Known only from the shelf and slope off the western half of South Georgia and off Shag Rocks (Map 4). Depth range: 101-261 m, except for one record at 778-814 m." Cairns 1982, Plate 5, figs. 6-9.