|Author||Skeleton?||Mineral or Organic?||Mineral||Percent Magnesium|
|Cairns, den Hartog, and Arneson, 1986||YES||MINERAL||ARAGONITE|
|Cairns, Hoeksema, and van der Land, 1999||YES||MINERAL||ARAGONITE|
Habitat and Ecology
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.
Depth range (m): 4.5 - 4.5
Temperature range (°C): 22.956 - 22.956
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.176 - 0.176
Salinity (PPS): 36.491 - 36.491
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.966 - 4.966
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.037 - 0.037
Silicate (umol/l): 0.876 - 0.876
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
The age of first maturity of most reef building corals is typically three to eight years (Wallace 1999) and therefore we assume that average age of mature individuals is greater than eight years. Furthermore, based on average sizes and growth rates, we assume that average generation length is 10 years, unless otherwise stated. Total longevity is not known, but likely to be more than ten years. Therefore any population decline rates for the Red List assessment are measured over at least 30 years. Follow the link below for further details on population decline and generation length estimates.
Coral disease has emerged as a serious threat to coral reefs worldwide and a major cause of reef deterioration (Weil et al. 2006). The numbers of diseases and coral species affected, as well as the distribution of diseases have all increased dramatically within the last decade (Porter et al. 2001, Green and Bruckner 2000, Sutherland et al. 2004, Weil 2004). Coral disease epizootics have resulted in significant losses of coral cover and were implicated in the dramatic decline of acroporids in the Florida Keys (Aronson and Precht 2001, Porter et al. 2001, Patterson et al. 2002). In the Indo-Pacific, disease is also on the rise with disease outbreaks recently reported from the Great Barrier Reef (Willis et al. 2004), Marshall Islands (Jacobson 2006) and the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (Aeby 2006). Increased coral disease levels on the GBR were correlated with increased ocean temperatures (Willis et al. 2007) supporting the prediction that disease levels will be increasing with higher sea surface temperatures. Escalating anthropogenic stressors combined with the threats associated with global climate change of increases in coral disease, frequency and duration of coral bleaching and ocean acidification place coral reefs in the Indo-Pacific at high risk of collapse.
Localized threats to corals include fisheries, human development (industry, settlement, tourism, and transportation), changes in native species dynamics (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), invasive species (competitors, predators, pathogens and parasites), dynamite fishing, chemical fishing, pollution from agriculture and industry, domestic pollution, sedimentation, and human recreation and tourism activities.
The severity of these combined threats to the global population of each individual species is not known.
Further research is needed into the taxonomic status of this species, their distribution range, threats, and population status. (Aronson, R., Precht, W., Moore, J., Weil, E., and Bruckner, A. pers. comm.)
Recommended measures for conserving this species include research in taxonomy, population, abundance and trends, ecology and habitat status, threats and resilience to threats, restoration action; identification, establishment and management of new protected areas; expansion of protected areas; recovery management; and disease, pathogen and parasite management. Artificial propagation and techniques such as cryo-preservation of gametes may become important for conserving coral biodiversity.