The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Barnes, R. 1987. Invertebrate Zoology. Orlando, Florida: Dryden Press.
  • Beirne, L., K. Fitzmier, M. Miller. 2001. "Holothuroidea" (On-line). Biological Diversity 2001. Accessed January 28, 2005 at
  • Brusca, R., G. Brusca. 2003. Invertebrates. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc..
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
  • Fautin D, Dalton P, Incze LS, Leong J-AC, Pautzke C, et al. 2010. An Overview of Marine Biodiversity in United States Waters. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11914. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011914
  • Frizell, Don L., Harriet Exline, et al. / Durham, J. Wyatt, et al. / Moore, Raymond C., ed. 1966. Holothurians. Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part U, Echinodermata 3, vol. 2. U641-U646
  • Gilliland, P. M. 1993. The skeletal morphology, systematics and evolutionary history of holothurians. Special Papers in Palaeontology 47: 1-147
  • Hyman, L. H. 1955. The Invertebrates. Vol. 4. Echinodermata. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Kerr, A. 2000. Evolution and Systematics of Holothuroidea (Echinodermata). Thesis, Yale University.
  • Littlewood, D. T. J., A. B. Smith, K. A. Clough and R. H. Emson. 1997. The interrelationships of the echinoderm classes: morphological and molecular evidence. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 61: 409-438.
  • Mooi, R. and B. David. 1997. Skeletal homologies of echinoderms. Paleontological Society Papers 3: 305-355.
  • Paulay, G. (2015). Holothuroidea. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Pawson, D. L. 1982. Holothuroidea. In: Parker, S. P., ed. Synopsis and Classification of Living Organisms. New York: McGraw-Hill, 813-818.
  • Semper, C. 1868. Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen. 2. Wissenschaftliche Resultate. 1. Holothurien. Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann.
  • Smiley, S. 1994. Holothuroidea. In: Harrison, F. W. and F.-S. Chia, eds. Microscopic Anatomy of Invertebrates. Volume 14. Echinodermata. New York: Wiley-Liss, 401-471.
  • Smiley, S., F. S. McEuen, S. Chaffee, and S. Krishnan. 1991. Echinodermata: Holothuroidea. In: Giese, A. C., J. S. Pearse, and V. B. Pearse, eds. Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates. Volume 6. Pacific Grove, California: Boxwood Press, 663-750.
  • Smith, A. B. 1997. Echinoderm larvae and phylogeny. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28: 219-241.
  • University of Paisley, 1998. "Class Holothuroidea" (On-line). Accessed January 28, 2005 at
  • Waggoner, D., B. Spear. 1994. "The Holothuroidea" (On-line). Accessed January 28, 2005 at


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