The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,.. 2002. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115
  • Fewkes, J. W. 1882a. Notes on acalephs from the Tortugas, with a description of new genera and species. In: Explorations of the surface fauna of the Gulf Stream, under the auspices of the U.S. Coast Survey, by Alexander Agassiz. - Bulletin of the Museum of comparative Zoölogy of Harvard College 9: 251-289, pls 1-7.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
  • Schuchert P. (2015). WoRMS Hydrozoa: World Hydrozoa database (version 2015-08-01). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Segura-Puertas, L., L. Celis, and L. Chiaverano. 2009. Medusozoans (Cnidaria: Cubozoa, Scyphozoa, and Hydrozoa) of the Gulf of Mexico,
  • UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms
  • WoRMS (2015). Halitiara formosa. In: Schuchert, P. (2015) World Hydrozoa database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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