The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bolton T.F. and W.M. Graham. 2004. Morphological variation among populations of an invasive jellyfish. Marine Ecology Progress Series 278:125-139.
  • Cairns, Stephen D., Dale R. Calder, Anita Brinckmann-Voss, Clovis B. Castro, Daphne G. Fautin,.. 2002. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora, Second Edition, 2002. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 28. xi + 115
  • Carlton J.T. and J.B. Geller. 1993. Ecological roulette: the global transport of nonindigenous marine organisms. Science 261:78-82.
  • Cutress C.E. 1973. Phyllorhiza punctata in the Tropical Atlantic. Associations of Island Marine Laboratories of the Caribbean, Cumana 9:14.
  • Fautin D, Dalton P, Incze LS, Leong J-AC, Pautzke C, et al. 2010. An Overview of Marine Biodiversity in United States Waters. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11914. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011914
  • Fuller P. 2005. Phyllorhiza punctata. Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database, Gainesville, FL. Available online.Garcia J.R. and B. Durbin. 1993. Zooplanktivorous predation by large scyphomedusae Phyllorhiza punctata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) in Laguna Joyuda. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 173:71-93.
  • Graham W.M. 1998. First report of Carybdea alata var. grandis (Reynaud 1830) (Cnidaria: Cubozoa) from the Gulf of Mexico. Gulf of Mexico Science 1998:28-30.
  • Graham W.M. and T.F. Bolton. 2004. Molecular and morphological comparisons of native and non-native populations of a jellyfish invader. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Summer Meeting, Abstract.
  • Graham W.M., Martin D.L., Felder D.L., Asper V.L., and H.M. Perry. 2003. Ecological and economic implications of a tropical jellyfish invader in the Gulf of Mexico. Biological Invasions 5:53-69.
  • Graham W.M., Perry H.M., and D.L. Felder. 2001. Ecological and Economic implications of the tropical jellyfish, Phylloriza punctata, in the Northern Gulf of Mexico during the summer of 2000. In International Conference on Marine Bioinvasions, New Orleans, Louisiana. Louisiana Sea Grant. 59.
  • Haddad M.A. and M. Nogueira, Jr. 2006. Reappearance and seasonality of Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae) medusae in southern Brazil. Rev. Bras. Zool. 23.
  • Heeger T., Piatkowski U., and H. Moeller. 1992. Predation on jellyfish by the cephalopod Argonauta argo. Marine Ecology Progress Series 88:293-296.
  • Johnson D.R., Perry H.M., and W.M. Graham. 2004. Using nowcast model currents to explore transport of non-indigenous jellyfish into the Gulf of Mexico. Marine Ecology Progress Series 305:139-146.
  • Kramp, P. L. 1961. Synopsis of the medusae of the world. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 40. 1-469
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2013). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Larson R.J. and A.C. Arneson. 1990. Two medusae new to the coast of California: Carybdea marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758), a cubomedusa and Phyllorhiza punctata von Ledenfeld, 1884, a rhizostome scyphomedusa. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 89:130-136.
  • Moreira M.G.B.S. 1961. Sobre Mastigias scintillae sp. nov. (Scyphomedusae, Rhizostomeae) das costas do Brasil. Boletim do Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo 11:5-30.
  • Omori M. and M. Kitamura. 2004. Taxonomic review of three Japanese species of edible jellyfish (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae), Plankton Biol. Ecol. 51:36-51.
  • Perry H. and K. Larsen. 2004. Picture Guide to Shelf Invertebrates of the Northern Gulf of Mexico. NOAA/NMFS online publication.Ray G.L. 2005. Invasive Marine and Estuarine Animals of the Gulf of Mexico. Aquatic Nuisance Species research Program. Document ERDC/TN ANSRP-05-4.
  • Rippingale R.J. and S.J. Kelly. 1995. Reproduction and survival of Phyllorhiza punctata (Cnidaria: Rhizostomeae) in a seasonally fluctuating salinity regime in western Australia. Marine and Freshwater Research 46:1145-1151.
  • Ruiz, G. M., Fofonoff P. W., Steves B., Foss S. F., & Shiba S. N. (2011). Marine invasion history and vector analysis of California: a hotspot for western North America. Diversity and Distributions. 17, 362-373.
  • Rupert E.E., Fox R.S., and R.D. Barnes. 2004. Invertebrate Zoology. Seventh Edition.Silveira F.L. and P.F.S. Cornelius. 2000. New observations on medusae (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa, Rhizostomae) from the northeast and south Brazil, Acta Biologica Leopoldensia 22:9-18.
  • WoRMS (2015). Phyllorhiza punctata Lendenfeld, 1884. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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