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The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Baird D, Ulanowicz RE (1989) The seasonal dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 59:329–364
  • Baird, D., R. Ulanowicz. 1989. The seasonal dynamics of the Chesapeake Bay ecosystem. Ecological Monographs, 59 (4): 329-364.
  • Balamurugan, E., D. Kumar, V. Menon. 2009. Proapoptotic effect of Chrysaora quinquecirrha (sea nettle) nematocyst venom peptide in HEp 2 and HeLa Cells. European Journal of Scientific Research, 35 (3): 355-367. Accessed June 21, 2011 at
  • Barnes, R. 1974. Invertebrate zoology. Philiadelphia: 3d ed. Saunders.
  • Calder, D. 1972. Development of the sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Chesapeake Science, 13: 40-44.
  • Cargo, D., D. King. 1978. Forecasting the abundance of the sea nettle, Chrysaora quinquecirrha, in the Chesapeake Bay. Estuaries and Coasts. Estuaries and Coasts, 13: 485-491.
  • Cargo, D., G. Rabenold. 1978. Observations on the asexual reproductive activities of the sessile stages of the sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Scyphozoa). Estuaries and Coasts, 3: 20-27.
  • Clifford, H., D. Cargo. 1987. Feeding rates of the sea nettle, Chrysaora quinquecirrha, under laboratory conditions. Estuaries and Coasts, 1: 58-61.
  • Condon, R., M. Decker, J. Purcell. 2001. Effects of low dissolved oxygen on survival and sexual reproduction of scyphozoan polyps (Chrysaora quinquecirrha). Hydrobiologia, 451: 89-95.
  • Costello, J., E. Klos, M. Ford. 1998. In situ time budgets of the scyphomedusae Aurelia aurita, Cyanea sp, and Chrysaora quinquecirrha. J. Plankton Res, 20: 383-391.
  • Costello, J., S. Colin, J. Dabiri. 2008. Medusan morphospace: phylogenetic constraints, biomechanical solutions, and ecological consequences. Invertebrate Biology, 127(3): 265-290.
  • Cowan, J., E. Houde. 1993. Relative predation potentials of scyphomedusae, ctenophores and planktivorous fish on ichthyoplankton in the Chesapeake Bay. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 95: 55-65.
  • Feigenbaum, D., M. Kelly. 1984. Changes in the lower Chesapeake Bay food chain in presence of the sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha (Scyphomedusa). Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 19: 39-47.
  • Ford, M., J. Costello, K. Heidelberg, J. Purcell. 1997. Swimming and feeding by the scyphomedusa Chrysaora quinquecirrha. Marine Biology, 129: 355-362.
  • Houghton, J., T. Doyle, M. Wilson, J. Davenport, G. Hays. 2006. Jellyfish aggregations and leatherback turtle foraging. Ecology, 87 (8): 1967-1972.
  • Kramp, P. L. 1961. Synopsis of the medusae of the world. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, vol. 40. 1-469
  • Land J. van der (ed) (†) (2015). URMO: UNESCO-IOC Register of Marine Organisms (version Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Littleford, R. 1939. The life cycle of Dactylometra quinquecirrha, L. agassiz in the Chesapeake Bay. The Biological Bulletin, 77: 368-381.
  • Lucy, J. 1983. Handle with care! Mid-Atlantic marine animals that demand your respect. Educational Series, 26: 22.
  • Purcell, J. 1992. Effects of predation by the scyphomedusan Chrysaora quinquecirrha on zooplankton populations in Chesapeake Bay, USA. Marine Ecology-Progress Series, 87: 65-76.
  • Purcell, J., M. Decker. 2005. Effects of climate on relative predation by scyphomedusae and ctenophores on copepods in Chesapeake Bay during 1987-2000. Limnology and Oceanography, 50 (1): 367-387.
  • Rice, N., A. Powell. 1970. Observations on three species of jellyfishes from Chesapeake Bay with special reference to their toxins. I. Chrysaora (Dactylometra) quinquecirrha. The Biological Bulletin, 198: 180-187.
  • Segura-Puertas, Lourdes, Eduardo Suárez-Morales, and Laura Celis. 2003. A checklist of the Medusae (Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Cubozoa) of Mexico. Zootaxa, issue 194. 1-15
  • Sexton, M., R. Hood, J. Sarkodee-ado, A. Liss. 2010. Response of Chrysaora quinquecirrha medusae to low temperature. Hydrobiologia, 645: 125-133.
  • Seymour, J., R. Wallèn, K. Nordström, D. Nilsson. 2003. A simple visual system without neurons in jellyfish. Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 270: 2349-2354.
  • Stierwald, M. 2004. On the evolution of cnidarian eyes. University of Basel, PhD Thesis: 1-54.


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