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BiologyCommon in large schools along sandy shorelines and reef margins. Reported to be mainly a nocturnal species which usually forms schools (from several hundred to more than 100 m long and 20 m wide) (Ref. 9760). Feeds mostly at night when the school disperse. Feeds on a variety of planktonic crustaceans. Preyed upon by sharks, tunas, long toms, and amberjacks which swim alongside the school. Among its other predators are crested terns, gannets, sea-gulls and herons. Slow moving and not well regarded as bait. Extremely important as forage fish for larger species (Ref. 3302). Sold fresh, or salted and dried (Ref. 12484). Minimum depth reported taken from Ref. 57178.