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BiologyOceanic, found between 225-750 m during the day and between 90-375 m (juveniles) and 450-550 m (adults) at night. Epipelagic to mesopelagic (Ref. 31442). Widespread distribution in all oceans, limited by 10° and 15°C isotherms at 200 m and by a productivity greater than 50g Carbon per square meter per year. Sexually mature from about 5.9 cm. Spawn mainly during summer to autumn in the Mediterranean (Ref. 4775). Oviparous, with planktonic eggs and larvae (Ref. 31442). Also Ref. 58302.