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BiologyOccurs inshore and offshore, from the intertidal to at least 70 m depth (Ref. 9862). May enter brackish water. Feeds on worms, crustaceans, snails, and bony fishes (Ref. 12951). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449). With litters of up to 4 young. Size at birth about 17 cm WD (Ref. 6871). Caught frequently but in lower numbers, by bottom trawl and inshore gillnet fisheries in some areas. Utilized for its meat, but of limited value due to its small size (Ref.58048).