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BiologyAdults occur in coastal waters, including estuaries (Ref. 9563), mostly in waters shallower than 150 m and warmer than 13°C (Ref. 9072). Commonly found on the bottom, in midwater and occasionally at the surface (Ref. 9258), in large schools (Ref. 33616). Adults are generally found over offshore rocky reefs, while juveniles are generally found in shallow, soft substrate areas (Ref. 6390). Utilized fresh, smoked, canned and frozen; can be fried, broiled and baked (Ref. 9988).