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BiologyFreshwater. Found in large to small creeks (Ref. 89241). Found in gravel riffles and sandy runs of clean, clear high-gradient streams. Ammocoete larvae occur in sand, mud and debris in pools and backwaters. Non-parasitic (Ref. 5723). Adults preyed upon by Necturus maculosus. Spawning period at the end of May in Pennsylvania. Spawning occurs in watercourses with swift current and large stones (Ref. 89241).