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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Epipelagic in neritic and oceanic waters (Ref. 9340). Feeds on small fish, squids, planktonic crustaceans (megalops), and stomatopod larvae (Ref. 5213). Because of their abundance, they are considered an important element of the food web, particularly as forage for other species of commercial interest. Preyed upon by larger fishes, including other tunas (Ref. 9987). Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9340); also utilized dried or salted, smoked and canned (Ref. 9987).
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Distribution

Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans
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Atlantic, Indian and Pacific (Western Central). Eastern Pacific population recognized as subspecies Auxis thazard brachydorax (Ref. 32349). Many authors have used the name Auxis thazard as including Auxis rochei in the belief that there was only a single worldwide species of Auxis. Highly migratory species, Annex I of the 1982 Convention on the Law of the Sea (Ref. 26139).
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Circumglobal in tropical through temperate seas, including Red Sea, Madagascar, Mascarenes, Hawaiian Islands, but except Eastern Pacific
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10 - 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10 - 13; Analspines: 0; Analsoft rays: 10 - 14
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Size

Maximum size: 650 mm FL
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Max. size

65.0 cm FL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 29114)); max. published weight: 1,720 g (Ref. 40637); max. reported age: 5 years (Ref. 29114)
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Diagnostic Description

Description

This schooling species occurs at temperatures ranging from 27 to 27.9 °C. Epipelagic in both coastal and oceanic waters (Ref. 9340). Because of their abundance, they are considered an important element of the food web, particularly as forage for other species of commercial interest. It grows larger than @A. rochei@. Feeds on small fish, squids, planktonic crustaceans (megalops), and stomatopod larvae (Ref. 5213). Preyed upon by larger fishes, including other tunas (Ref. 9987). Also caught with troll lines. Marketed fresh and frozen (Ref. 9340), also utilized dried/salted, smoked and canned (Ref. 9987).
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Back bluish, turning to deep purple or almost black on the head. A pattern of 15 or more narrow, oblique to nearly horizontal, dark wavy lines in scaleless area above lateral line. Belly white. Pectoral and pelvic fins purple, their inner sides black. Body robust, elongate and rounded. Teeth small and conical, in a single series. Pectoral fins short, but reaching past vertical line from anterior margin of scaleless area above corselet. A large single-pointed flap (interpelvic process) between pelvic fins. Body naked except for the corselet, which is well developed and narrow in its posterior part (no more than 5 scales wide under second dorsal-fin origin). A strong central keel on each side of caudal-fin base between 2 smaller keels (Ref 9684).
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 20 specimens in 3 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 237

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 237
 
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Habitat Type: Marine

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Environment

pelagic-neritic; oceanodromous (Ref. 51243); marine; depth range 50 - ? m (Ref. 9340)
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Depth range based on 20 specimens in 3 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 237

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 237
 
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Oceanodromous. Migrating within oceans typically between spawning and different feeding areas, as tunas do. Migrations should be cyclical and predictable and cover more than 100 km.
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Trophic Strategy

Epipelagic in neritic and oceanic waters (Ref. 9340). Feeds on small fish, squids, planktonic crustaceans (megalops), and stomatopod larvae (Ref. 5213). Because of their abundance, they are considered an important element of the food web, particularly as forage for other species of commercial interest. Preyed upon by larger fishes, including other tunas (Ref. 9987). Confined to oceanic salinities with strong schooling behavior. Though larvae have a high temperature tolerance (at least between 21.6 and 30.5°C), the widest among tuna species studied, their optimum temperature is between 27 and 27.9°C.
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Diseases and Parasites

Tergestia Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Rhipidocotyle Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Phyllodistomum Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Phacelotrema Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Opepherotrema Infestation. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Hexostoma auxidi Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Didymozoon Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Colocynotrema Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Callitetrarhynchus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Bomolochus Disease. Parasitic infestations (protozoa, worms, etc.)
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

In correlation with temperature and other environmental changes, the spawning season varies with areas, but in some places it may even extend throughout the year.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Auxis thazard

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 22 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CTTTATCTAGTATTCGGTGCATGAGCTGGTATAGTTGGCACAGCCCTA---AGCTTGCTCATCCGAGCTGAACTAAGCCAACCAGGTGCCCTTCTCGGGGAC---GACCAAATCTACAATGTAATCGTTACGGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATGATTTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCAATTATGATTGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTCATCCCTCTAATG---ATCGGAGCTCCAGACATGGCATTCCCACGAATGAACAACATGAGCTTCTGACTTCTCCCTCCTTCTTTCCTTCTACTACTAGCTTCTTCAGGAGTTGAAGCTGGTGCCGGAACCGGTTGAACAGTTTACCCGCCCCTTGCTGGTAATCTAGCCCACGCCGGGGCATCCGTTGACTTA---ACTATTTTCTCCCTCCACCTAGCAGGTGTATCCTCAATTCTTGGGGCTATTAATTTCATTACAACAATTATTAACATGAAACCTGCCGCTATTTCCCAATACCAAACTCCCCTGTTTGTGTGGGCCGTTCTAATTACAGCCGTCCTTCTCCTTCTATCACTCCCAGTTCTTGCCGCT---GGCATTACAATGCTCCTAACAGACCGAAACCTAAATACAACCTTCTTCGACCCTGCAGGAGGGGGAGACCCAATTCTTTACCAACACCTA------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------TTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Auxis thazard

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 52
Specimens with Barcodes: 73
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Least Concern (LC)
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: highly commercial; gamefish: yes; price category: very high; price reliability: reliable: based on ex-vessel price for this species
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Disclaimer

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