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BiologyOccur in swift-flowing, tea-colored streams coursing through karri forests. Also found in swamps, ponds and roadside ditches. Usually lives in small flowing streams near submerged vegetation. Water inhabited is darkly tannin-stained and acidic (pH 3.0-6.0) (Ref. 44894). Feed on insects and their larvae in water; also on micro-crustaceans. Spawning has been recorded from July to October, peaking between August and September when water temperatures and day length are on the rise. Multiple-spawning females deposit several clutches of eggs over a protracted period of a few weeks in flooded vegetation. Sexual maturity is attained in the first year. Spent adults usually die a few months after spawning (Ref. 44894).