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BiologyOccur mostly on outer edge of continental shelf and upper part of continental slope (Ref. 7251). Known salinities at which it has been taken 33.8 off Block Island to 35.3 off Chesapeake bay (Ref. 6902). Feed mostly on decapod crustaceans and to a lesser extent on amphipods, polychaetes, squids and fishes. Oviparous (Ref. 50449). Distinct pairing with embrace. Young may tend to follow large objects, such as their mother (Ref. 205). Eggs are oblong capsules with stiff pointed horns at the corners deposited in sandy or muddy flats (Ref. 205). Egg capsules are 3.7-5.4 cm long and 2.6-3.0 cm wide (Ref. 41301, 41298). Marketed fresh and salted (Ref. 3824).