Found in the following locations: Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa, and Tanzania.
“Amphibious species spending most of the time out of the water; able to meet its oxygen requirements as long as it stays wet. Typically resting on mud, rocks, or mangrove roots with their tails dipped in the water. Feeds on worms, crustaceans, and insects...Differs from P. argentilineatus by lacking thin silvery bars ventrally on the sides and having pelvic fins connected at the base by a low membrane (Ref. 37816).”
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.
Depth range (m): 9 - 9
Temperature range (°C): 26.960 - 26.960
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.498 - 0.498
Salinity (PPS): 34.192 - 34.192
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.578 - 4.578
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.284 - 0.284
Silicate (umol/l): 4.892 - 4.892
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Mudskippers associate with their own species. Any other creature they associate with is not for a social purpose but for survival, such as the algae and arthropods they consume.
Diseases and Parasites
Diseases aren’t common in mudskippers; nonetheless they are still prone to viral disorders, bacterial infections like fin rot, fungal infections, and mold infections.
Life History and Behavior
Very active during the day, spending most of their time squabbling with their neighbors over territory. They feed on algae that the tides leave behind, so when the tide’s out, they’re emerge from their burrows to feed, returning to the burrow when the tide comes back in.
Born in freshwater, swim to salt water as newly-hatched larvae where they feed and grow for a few months and then return to fresh water as juvenile adults. They remain in the freshwater for the remainder of their lives.
Mudskippers breed and are born in freshwater. Then, as newly-hatched larvae, they travel to saltwater to feed and grow for two months or so. After that they return to freshwater as juvenile adults, and they remain in the fresh water for the rest of their lives.
To reproduce, mudskippers and other gobies attach their eggs to vegetation, or coral or a rock, and a male guards them until the eggs hatch after a few days. After the larvae are born, they go to saltwater to continue growth. Life expectancy of gobies vary from one year to ten years, those living in temperate environments.
Evolution and Systematics
Bony fishes divided into two groups, one of which (actinopterigians) contained mudskippers. The latter evolved special respiratory systems that allowed them to breathe out of water. Mudskippers were then able to use their fins like a pair of legs to pull them out of their underwater habitats. It’s believed that this became necessary because of inhospitable water conditions (like, moving from one pool to another).
Physiology and Cell Biology
The physiology of mudskippers is like that of any fish, but what’s special about them is their ability to breathe above water. The reality is that they’re not air-breathing, but obtaining oxygen from packets of water in their mouths.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Periophthalmus modestus
No available public DNA sequences.
Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Periophthalmus modestus
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Periophthalmus modestus, the shuttles hoppfish, is a species of mudskippers native to fresh, marine and brackish waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean from Vietnam to Korea and Japan. This species occurs in muddy estuaries, tidal flats and swamps and marshes and is capable of remaining out of the water for up to 60 hours so long as it is kept moist. This species can reach a length of 10 centimetres (3.9 in) TL. This species can also be found in the aquarium trade and is also used in traditional Chinese medicine.
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