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BiologyOccurs in clear, cool, fast-flowing streams and also brackish mangrove estuaries. Inhabits tidal mangrove creeks or fringing coastal mangrove and around offshore islands. Also common in clear, forest streams. Water temperature varies between 15° and 28°C, with the lower end of the scale applicable during winter over the southernmost part of the range. The pH fluctuates from 5.5-7.8 according to habitat conditions. At least 15 geographical varieties have been recognized, but detailed morphological studies reveal there is only one species (Ref. 44894).