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BiologyInhabits brackish water of estuaries, lagoons, coastal waters of open sea, freshwater of lowland and piedmont rivers and lakes (Ref. 59043). Found in middle and surface water of ponds, lakes and streams, over a variety of bottom types (Ref. 5723). The species is basically anadromous, ascending rivers to spawn in spring (Ref. 33312). The anadromous populations are pelagic at the sea, commonly at 4-5 m depth and spawn in rivers. Landlocked populations may spawn in lakes or undertake migration to their tributaries. Spawns along shallow river shores and in backwaters with little or no current, often in lakes, on sand or gravel bottom (Ref. 59043). Within a specific lake or pond, adults are generally found in inshore spawning areas in spring and early summer, later moving offshore (Ref. 27547). Feeds on zooplankton, insects and algae (Ref. 28680, 28681). Only a few survive beyond age 3 (Ref. 27547).