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BiologyLive close to the sea bed over sandy substrates. Occur in the surf zone of beaches and quiet waters of bays and sandbanks. Are trawled in offshore waters to at least 55 m and possibly deeper. Juveniles may be found in shallow water off white sand beaches, together with accumulations of dead seaweed in the surf zone during spring and summer in Western Australia. Move into shallow waters in large schools during full moon (Ref. 6205). Feed mainly on crustaceans, amphipods, decapods, mysids and copepods. Juveniles consume mostly copepods (Ref. 6223). Oviparous (Ref. 205), and are multiple spawners with asynchronous development (Ref. 12343).