Habitat and Ecology
At sea, mostly close to shores. Forages also in estuaries. Spawns in lowland streams and rivers on sand-gravel bottom, usually in strong current.
Semi-anadromous but rarely landlocked in reservoirs. Spawns for the first time at 3-7 years, females later than males, over 200 mm SL. Spawns in April-August. Males are annual spawners, females apparently spawn every 2-3 years. Semi-anadromous populations start migration in late summer-autumn and spawn following spring, but some enter rivers in early spring and spawn same year. Migrate to uppermost tributaries of rivers. Landlocked populations migrate just before spawning to upper stretches of tributaries, or spawn in lakes and reservoirs on sand to mud bottom. Female lays 15,000-125,000 light grey eggs. Larvae feed on zooplankton and small benthic invertebrates. Juveniles and adults feed on invertebrates, algae, detritus, plant material, and small fishes.
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
In the western Caspian Sea the semi-anadromous population has declined, due to the lack of spawning sites and poaching, but it is still frequent in the southern Caspian tributaries in Azerbaidjan and Iran. There is still L. capito populations in the upper Arax in Turkey.
Overall, there is a continuing to decline due to expanding hydropower development, overfishing and strong ecological impacts on Caspian and Aral Sea basins. It is suspected that the total population has declined by at least 30% in the past 30 years.
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2006). "Luciobarbus capito" in FishBase. April 2006 version.
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