- Roberts, T.R. 1992 Systematic revision of the old world freshwater fish family Notopteridae. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 2(4):361-383. (Ref. 7431)
- Kottelat, M., A.J. Whitten, S.N. Kartikasari and S. Wirjoatmodjo 1993 Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong. 221 p. (Ref. 7050)
Indus River Demersal Habitat
This taxon is one of the native demersal fish taxa that are found in the Indus River system. Major tributaries of the Indus rise in the Himalayan Mountains and the Hindu Kush; these influent rivers include the Chenab, Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej. The Indus mainstem rises on the Tibetan Plateau and flows generally westward.
Generally the Indus sustains slower velocities with a wider channel as the river approaches its delta on the Arabian Sea. The Indus transports massive amounts of silt generated by human disturbances in its watershed as well as the torrential monsoonal rain events. Water quality issues in the Indus Basin have historically been dominated by sediment loading in a watershed which is subject to high natural erosivity, and early disturbance by sedentary agriculture on the floodplains and valleys. Beginning in the twentieth century, water pollution has been aggravated by massive water withdrawals for agriculture that have then concentrated pollutants.
The Green Revolution has exacerbated water pollution by considerable additions of nitrate to promote crop growth. Other aggravating factors have included increasing amounts of herbicides and pesticides, as pressures to increase crop production expand. Flow of the perennial Indus is dominated by: (a) meltwaters from the Tibetan icefield, the third largest ice sheet formation in the world; (b) snowfall and snowmelt from higher elevation of the watershed; and (c) episodic monsoonal rains that lead to periodic flooding in the basin.
Some of the arge native demersal fish associates in the Indus Basin are the 70 centimetre (cm) scaly osman (Diptychus maculatus), the 30 cm reba (Bangana ariza), the 30 cm Indus snowtrout (Ptychobarbus conirostris), the 30 cm Kunar snowtrout (Schizothorax labiatus), the 35 cm false osman (Schizopygopsis stoliczkai), the 47 cm Chirruh snowtrout (Schizothorax esocinus), and the 40 cm Sattar snowtrout (Schizopyge curvifrons).
- C.Michael Hogan. 2012. ''Indus River. Encyclopedia of Earth, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC ed. Mark McGinley; ed.in-chief Cutler J.Cleveland
- Fishbase. 2010. Species in Indus. http://www.fishbase.org/trophiceco/FishEcoList.php?ve_code=34
Habitat and Ecology
Owing to its carnivorous nature, this fish can only be cultivated in wild waters or in fattening ponds in which large fish are present. It breeds in stagnant or running water in the rainy season. A ripe female bears relatively fewer eggs; they are laid in small clumps on submerged vegetation. Fingerlings are available in upper reaches of Cauvery in July-August. This fish is relished both in fresh and dried state.
- Riede, K. 2004 Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federal Agency for Nature Conservation, Bonn, Germany. 329 p. (Ref. 51243)
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.
Depth range (m): 1 - 1.5
Temperature range (°C): 28.738 - 28.738
Nitrate (umol/L): 0.360 - 0.360
Salinity (PPS): 32.360 - 32.360
Oxygen (ml/l): 4.580 - 4.580
Phosphate (umol/l): 0.207 - 0.207
Silicate (umol/l): 5.109 - 5.109
Depth range (m): 1 - 1.5
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Diseases and Parasites
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Notopterus notopterus
Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.
See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Notopterus notopterus
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 21
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
The threats to this species are not known.
More research into population trends in the wild is required to understand the status of this widespread species.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
The bronze featherback (Notopterus notopterus; Bengali: ফলি, Thai: ปลาสลาด, ปลาฉลาด, ปลาตอง) is a fish in family Notopteridae found in South and Southeast Asia. Although primarily found in fresh water, it has been known to enter brackish water. At present it is the only member of its genus, but as currently defined it is likely a species complex.
This fish is an important food item in Laos, Indonesia, and Thailand. It is preserved and prepared in different ways. Nam phrik pla salat pon (น้ำพริกปลาสลาดป่น) is a variety of nam phrik with minced roasted pla salat eaten along with raw vegetables. It is popular in Khorat.
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