Overview

Distribution

endemic to a single state or province

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: Phelps Lake, Washington County, North Carolina, where probably introduced via bait bucket.

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

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Depth range based on 225 specimens in 49 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 7 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 15
  Temperature range (°C): 21.311 - 29.128
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.143 - 0.144
  Salinity (PPS): 33.956 - 34.228
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.582 - 5.074
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.213 - 0.352
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.882 - 3.264

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 15

Temperature range (°C): 21.311 - 29.128

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.143 - 0.144

Salinity (PPS): 33.956 - 34.228

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.582 - 5.074

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.213 - 0.352

Silicate (umol/l): 2.882 - 3.264
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Associations

Known predators

Fundulus (Fundulus, fish fry) is prey of:
Clupea
Scomber
Loligo
Raja
Pomatomus
Sterna
Megaceryle

Based on studies in:
USA: Massachusetts, Cape Ann (Marine, Sublittoral)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 272 (1947).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 284 (1947).
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Known prey organisms

Fundulus (Fundulus, fish fry) preys on:
plankton
detritus
suspended organic matter
Acmaea
Crepidula
Littorina saxatilis
Littorina littorea
Littorina obtusata
Mytilus
Balanus
Clava
Obelia
Sertularia
Metridium
Gammarus
Orchestia
Thais
Asterias
Carcinides
Cancer
Anurida
Melampus
Philoscia
Cylisticus

Based on studies in:
USA: Massachusetts, Cape Ann (Marine, Sublittoral)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 272 (1947).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 278 (1947).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 284 (1947).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 287 (1947).
  • R. W. Dexter, The marine communities of a tidal inlet at Cape Ann, Massachusetts: a study in bio-ecology, Ecol. Monogr. 17:263-294, from p. 288 (1947).
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:367
Specimens with Sequences:290
Specimens with Barcodes:287
Species:39
Species With Barcodes:37
Public Records:152
Public Species:26
Public BINs:22
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Barcode data: Fundulus cf. grandis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTTTATTTAGTATTTGGTGCCTGAGCCGGTATAGTAGGTACAGCTCTTAGCCTTCTCATTCGAGCAGAACTAAGCCAACCAGGCTCTCTTCTAGGGGATGACCAAATTTATAATGTAATCGTTACAGCACATGCATTTGTAATAATCTTTTTTATAGTTATACCAATCATAATTGGAGGTTTTGGAAATTGACTAATTCCTCTTATAATTGGTGCTCCAGACATAGCTTTTCCTCGTATAAATAATATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTTCCACCGTCATTTTTACTTCTCTTAGCCTCTTCTGGTGTTGAAGCCGGGGCTGGGACGGGTTGAACAGTTTATCCCCCCTTGGCAGGTAATTTAGCTCATGCAGGGGCTTCAGTAGATTTAACGATTTTTTCCCTACACTTGGCTGGTATTTCATCAATTTTAGGTGCTATTAATTTTATTACCACTATTATTAACATAAAACCTCCAGCTATTTCCCAATACCAGACCCCTCTGTTCGTATGAGCCGTCCTGATTACTGCTGTACTTCTTCTACTCTCCTTACCAGTCCTTGCTGCAGGAATCACAATGCTACTAACTGACCGAAATTTAAATACTACATTTTTTGACCCGGCAGGTGGAGGGGATCCTATTCTTTACCAACATCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Fundulus cf. grandis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G1 - Critically Imperiled

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Threats

Comments: Phelps Lake population is threatened by excessive nutrient inputs and peat mining;

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Wikipedia

Fundulus

Fundulus is a genus of ray-finned fishes in the superfamily Funduloidea, family Fundulidae (of which it is the type genus). It belongs to the order of toothcarps (Cyprinodontiformes), and therein the large suborder Cyprinodontoidei. Most of its closest living relatives are egg-laying, with the notable exception of the splitfin livebearers (Goodeidae).

They are usually smallish; most species reaching a length of at most 4 in (10 cm) when fully grown. However, a few larger species exist, with the giant killifish (F. grandissimus) and the northern studfish (F. catenatus) growing to twice the genus' average size.

Many of the 40-odd species are commonly known by the highly ambiguous name "killifish" (the general term for egg-laying toothcarps), or the somewhat less ambiguous "topminnow" (a catch-all term for Fundulidae). "Studfish" is a quite unequivocal vernacular name applied to some other Fundulus species; it is not usually used to refer to the genus as a whole, however.

Species[edit]

Russetfin Topminnow (F. escambiae)

There are currently 39 recognized species in this genus:[1]

Formerly placed in Fundulus were the closely related diamond killifish (Adinia xenica) and the somewhat more distantly related Cuban killifish (Cubanichthys cubensis, a pupfish).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Froese, Rainer, and Daniel Pauly, eds. (2012). Species of Fundulus in FishBase. August 2012 version.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The Lake Phelps population was originally believed to represent F. waccamensis, but it now appears to be more closely related to F. diaphanus, of which it may be a subspecies. Further taxonomic study is needed.

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Disclaimer

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