The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Banks, R. C., R. W. McDiarmid, A. L. Gardner, and W. C. Starnes. 2003. Checklist of Vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. Territories, and Canada
  • Eschmeyer, William N. 1990. Genera of Recent Fishes. iii + 697
  • Hist. Nat. Poiss., 3, 57.
  • Nelson, Joseph S. 1994. Fishes of the World, Third Edition. xvii + 600
  • Peter Wirtz, Carlos Eduardo L. Ferreira, Sergio R. Floeter, Ronald Fricke, Joao Luiz Gasparini, Tomio Iwamoto, Luiz Rocha, Claudio L. S. Sampaio, Ulrich K. Schliewen (2007): Coastal Fishes of Sao Tome and Principe islands, Gulf of Guinea (Eastern Atlantic Ocean) - an update. Zootaxa 1523, 1-48: 11-11, URL:
  • Shiino, Sueo M. 1976. List of Common Names of Fishes of the World, Those Prevailing among English-speaking Nations. Science Report of Shima Marineland, no. 4. 262


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!