Depth range based on 25 specimens in 9 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.3 - 3.5
  Temperature range (°C): 10.354 - 15.376
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.987 - 10.956
  Salinity (PPS): 34.673 - 35.487
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.610 - 6.337
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.191 - 0.966
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.906 - 3.817

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.3 - 3.5

Temperature range (°C): 10.354 - 15.376

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.987 - 10.956

Salinity (PPS): 34.673 - 35.487

Oxygen (ml/l): 5.610 - 6.337

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.191 - 0.966

Silicate (umol/l): 0.906 - 3.817
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.


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Known prey organisms

Galaxias (Galaxias sp.) preys on:
Terrestrial invertebrates
Austrosimulium australense
Hydrobiosella stenocerca
Lumbriculidae pink
Oligochaeta I
Paracalliope fluviatalus
Paracalliope purple
Spaniocerca zelandia
Cricotopus II
Hydora nitida
Hydrobiosis parumbripennis
Oxyethira albiceps
Psilachorema bidens
Terrestial invertebrates
Terrestrial invertebrate
Aphrophila noevaezelandiae
Archichauliodes diversus
Austroclima jollyae
Coloburiscus humeralis
Costachorema xanthoptera
Megaleptoperla diminuta
Nesameletus ornatus
Polyplectropus puerilis
Potamopyrgus antipodarum
Psilochorema bidens

Based on studies in:
New Zealand: Otago, Catlins, Craggy Tor catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, German, Kye Burn catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, Narrowdale catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, Little Kye, Kye Burn catchment (River)
New Zealand: Otago, Stony, Sutton catchment (River)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Thompson, RM and Townsend CR. 2005. Energy availability, spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem size predict food-web structure in streams. OIKOS 108: 137-148.
  • Townsend, CR, Thompson, RM, McIntosh, AR, Kilroy, C, Edwards, ED, Scarsbrook, MR. 1998. Disturbance, resource supply and food-web architecture in streams. Ecology Letters 1:200-209.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:335
Specimens with Sequences:329
Specimens with Barcodes:252
Species With Barcodes:18
Public Records:122
Public Species:5
Public BINs:9
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Barcode data

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For other uses, see Galaxias (disambiguation).

Galaxias is a genus of smallish, highly successful freshwater fishes, commonly called galaxias, in the Galaxiidae family.


There are currently 46 recognized species in this genus:


Galaxias are restricted to the Southern Hemisphere, and generally only occur in temperate latitudes. Only one species is known from subtropical habitats.[3]

Before European settlement, galaxias were the dominant group of native freshwater fish in New Zealand, and, along with the Percichthyidae, one of two dominant groups of native freshwater fish in southeastern Australia. Only one of the species (G. zebratus) is found in Africa, and only three (G. globiceps, G. maculatus and G. platei) are found in South America.


Galaxias are coolwater species, with many wholly freshwater species specialising in high-altitude upland streams (including very small streams), rivers, and lakes. Some Galaxias species include a marine stage in their lifecycles where larvae are washed out to sea to develop, and return to rivers as juveniles. These species are consequently also found in low-altitude habitats, but frequently migrate to high-altitude reaches of river systems in their adult stage.

Wholly freshwater Galaxias species are gravely threatened by exotic salmonid species, particularly exotic trout species, which prey heavily upon them and compete with them for food. This is a major concern, as exotic trout species have been recklessly introduced to many different land masses (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa), with no thought as to impacts on native fish such as galaxias, and no attempt to preserve some exotic trout-free habitats for native fish.[4]

In most situations, wholly freshwater galaxias species show a complete inability to survive in the presence of exotic trout species, and many now occur only in the rare trout-free habitats still available to them. Numerous localised extinctions of wholly freshwater galaxias species (i.e. mountain galaxias) have been caused by the introduction of exotic trout species (including ongoing illegal stockings) and a number of wholly freshwater galaxias species are threatened with overall extinction by exotic trout species and other exotic salmonids.[3]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Raadik, T.A. (2014). "Fifteen from one: a revision of the Galaxias olidus Günther, 1866 complex (Teleostei, Galaxiidae) in south-eastern Australia recognises three previously described taxa and describes 12 new species.". Zootaxa, 3898 (1): 1–198. 
  2. ^ Precious: Gollum (the fish) risks extinction in New Zealand
  3. ^ a b McDowall, R.M. (2006): Crying wolf, crying foul, or crying shame: alien salmonids and a biodiversity crisis in the southern cool-temperate galaxioid fishes? Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 16: 233–422.
  4. ^ Biodiversity, Alien trout, and the "So what" attitude
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