Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:22
Specimens with Sequences:16
Specimens with Barcodes:16
Species With Barcodes:6
Public Records:7
Public Species:5
Public BINs:6
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Acteonidae, common name the "barrel bubble snails", is a family of small sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks of the informal group Lower Heterobranchia. [1]

Shell description[edit]

The shell is usually smaller than 25 mm.[2] The shell of these sand-dwelling micromollusks is small, but it is large enough to house the retracted soft parts including the entire mantle.

The aperture is elongated.[2] The narrow shell aperture, which is ovate and pointed on the top, can be closed with an operculum.

The thick shell is oviform to fusiform, with a short (sometimes sunken) conical apex. They have spiral sculpturing. The elongated aperture opens up from narrow at the posterior notch to enlarged at the base. The base of the columella has several characteristic plaits.


The radula has no central tooth, and there are five or six laterals on each side. The teeth are very similar in shape and size across the radula, which is specialised for a diet of polychaete worms.

The eggs are enclosed in a long, gelatinous mass, which is attached to the substrate with a short stalk.

The foot is with operculum.[2]


Acteonidae occur in warm seas in swallow and deep water.[2]

Animals predate polychaetes.[2]


Genera within the family Acteonidae include:

Genus Acteon Montfort, 1810 - type genus

† Genus Acteonina d'Orbigny, 1850

Genus Bathyacteon Valdés, 2008

Genus Callostracon Repetto & Bianco, 2012

† Genus Colostracon Hamlin, 1884

Genus Crenilabium Cossmann, 1889

Genus Inopinodon Bouchet, 1975

Genus Japonactaeon Taki, 1956

Genus Liocarenus Harris & Burrows, 1891

Genus Lissacteon Monterosato, 1890

Genus Maxacteon Rudman, 1971

  • Maxacteon cratericulatus Hedley, 1906
    • Distribution : New Zealand
  • Maxacteon fabreanus (= Acteon fabreanus) Crosse, 1874
    • Distribution : Philippines
    • Length : 17–30 mm
    • Description : white shell with five whorls, each whorl filled with lightbrown bands covering the many spirals of each whorl.
  • Maxacteon flammeus (= Acteon flammeus) Gmelin, 1791
    • Distribution : Red Sea, tropical Indo-West Pacific
    • Length : 17 mm
    • Description : the headshield is developing secondary tentacles.
  • Maxacteon hancocki (synonym: Acteon hancocki) Rudman, 1971
  • Maxacteon milleri (synonym: Acteon milleri) Rudman, 1971

Genus Mysouffa Marcus, 1974

  • Mysouffa cumingii (= Acteon mysouffa cumingii) (A. Adams, 1855)
    • Distribution : Florida, Brazil
    • Length : 20 mm
  • Mysouffa turrita (Watson, 1883)
    • Distribution : Jamaica, Cuba, Caribbean
    • Length : 14 mm
    • Description : found at depths of around 700 m

Genus Neactaeonina Thiele, 1912

Genus Obrussena Iredale, 1930

Genus Ongleya Finlay & Marwick, 1937

Genus Ovulacteon Dall, 1889

  • Ovulacteon meekii Dall, 1889
    • Distribution : Cuba, Bahamas, East Brazil
    • Length : 5.5 mm
    • Description : found at depths of 360 to 820 m

Genus Pseudacteon Thiele, 1925. There is also a homonym genus Pseudacteon Coquillett, 1907, arthropods in the family Phoridae [3]

Genus Punctacteon Kuroda & Habe, 1961

  • Punctacteon amakusaensis T. Habe, 1949
    • Distribution : Indo-Pacific
  • Punctacteon cebuanus Lan, 1985
    • Distribution : Philippines
  • Punctacteon eloisae Abbott, 1973 Eloise’s acteon
    • Distribution : Red Sea, Oman.
    • Length : 25–38 mm
    • Description: sublittoral on sandy bottoms; cream-colored shell with 5 convex whorls, each whorl with many spiral windings; each whorl is filled with redbrown separate patterns with darkbrown to black borders; similar to Maxacteon flammea.
  • Punctacteon fabraeus H. Crosse
  • Punctacteon kajiyamai T. Habe, 1976
    • Distribution : Indo-Pacific
  • Punctacteon kawamurai T. Habe, 1952
    • Distribution : Japan
  • Punctacteon kirai T. Habe, 1949
    • Distribution : Indo-Pacific off the Philippines
    • Length : 20 mm
    • Description : shell whitish to brownish; five whorls, first whorl being the largest; each whorl has many spiral windings; outer lip is notched.
  • Punctacteon variegatus (synonym: Acteon variegatus) Bruguière, 1789 Pink-spotted acteon
    • Distribution : Philippines, West Australia.
    • Length : 9–27 mm
    • Description : sublittoral on sandy bottoms; convex, cream-colored shell with five whorls, each whorls is covered with transverse pink-colored to lightbrown patterns, without dark borders; whirls with prominent shoulder.

Genus Pupa Röding, 1798:

Genus Rictaxis Dall, 1871:

The genus name is derived from Latin words, meaning “open mouth”, and “axis” referring to the columella.

  • Rictaxis albus Sowerby, 1873
    • Distribution : South Africa
    • Length : 10–21 mm
    • Description white shell with numerous spiraling white to lightbrown grooves
  • Rictaxis painei Dall, 1903
    • Distribution : America
  • Rictaxis punctocaelatus Carpenter, 1864 Barrel shell; Carpenter's baby bubble (synonym: Acteon punctocaelatus Carpenter, 1864)
    • Distribution : Southern Alaska, British Columbia, California
    • Length : 10–20 mm
    • Description : found in sand from lowtide line to depths up to 50 m; evenly elleptical shell with alternating darker brown and grayish-brown bands; outer lip and columellar folds are whitish; large spire; ovate columella strongly twisted, with a pointed posterior notch and a rounded base.
  • Rictaxis punctostriatus (C. B. Adams, 1840) Adam’s baby bubble, pitted baby bubble

Genus Tenuiacteon Aldrich, 1921

Genus Tomlinula Strand, 1932

† Genus Volvaria Lamarck, 1801

Genera brought into synonymy
  • Actaeon Ersch & Gruber, 1818: synonym of Acteon Montfort, 1810
  • Actaeonidea Gabb, 1872: synonym of Rictaxis Dall, 1871
  • Buccinulus H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854: synonym of Pupa Röding, 1798
  • Callostracon sensu Nordsieck, 1972: synonym of † Colostracon Hamlin, 1884
  • Crenilabrum Kobelt, 1892: synonym of Crenilabium Cossmann, 1889
  • Dactylus Schumacher, 1817: synonym of Pupa Röding, 1798
  • Japonacteon [sic]: synonym of Japonactaeon Taki, 1956
  • Lissactaeon Monterosato, 1890: synonym of Crenilabium Cossmann, 1889
  • Neoacteonina [sic] : synonym of Neactaeonina Thiele, 1912
  • Obrussa Iredale, 1925: synonym of Obrussena Iredale, 1930
  • Solidula Fischer von Waldheim, 1807: synonym of Pupa Röding, 1798
  • Strigopupa Habe, 1958: synonym of Pupa Röding, 1798
  • Tornatella Lamarck, 1816: synonym of Acteon Montfort, 1810


  • This article incorporates public domain text from the reference.[2]
  • Vaught, K.C. (1989). A classification of the living Mollusca. American Malacologists: Melbourne, FL (USA). ISBN 0-915826-22-4. XII, 195 pp.
  1. ^ a b Bouchet, P. (2012). Acteonidae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2012-08-04
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Family summary for Acteonidae". AnimalBase, last change 25-10-2007, accessed 3 August 2010
  3. ^ WoRMS (2010). Pseudacteon. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2012-08-04
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