The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Collette, Bruce B., Jan R. McDowell, and John E. Graves. 2006. Phylogeny of recent billfishes (Xiphioidei). Bulletin of Marine Science, vol. 79, no. 3. 455-468
  • Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. 2006. The Animal Diversity Web (online). Accessed February 16, 2011 at
  • Nakamura, Izumi. 1985. Billfishes of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Marlins, Sailfishes, Spearfishes and Swordfishes Known to Date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis, no. 125, vol. 5. iv + 65
  • Nakamura, Izumi. 1985. Billfishes of the World: An annotated and illustrated catalogue of marlins, sailfishes, spearfishes and swordfishes known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis (125), vol. 5
  • Shiino, Sueo M. 1976. List of Common Names of Fishes of the World, Those Prevailing among English-speaking Nations. Science Report of Shima Marineland, no. 4. 262
  • Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 248.


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