The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • Arnett, R. H. 2000. American Insects: A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla.
  • Beutel, R. G. and S. N. Gorb. 2001. Ultrastructure of attachment specializations of hexapods, (Arthropoda): evolutionary patterns inferred from a revised ordinal phylogeny. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 39:177-207.
  • Bilinski, S. M. 1993. Structure of ovaries and oogenesis in entognathans (Apterygota). International Journal of Insect Morphology & Embryology 22:255-269.
  • Bitsch, C. and J. Bitsch. 1998. Internal anatomy and phylogenetic relationships among apterygote insect clades (Hexapoda). Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 34:339-363.
  • Bitsch, C. and J. Bitsch. 2000. The phylogenetic interrelationships of the higher taxa of apterygote hexapods. Zoologica Scripta 29:131-156.
  • Bitsch, C. and J. Bitsch. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships of basal hexapods among the mandibulate arthropods: a cladistics analysis based on comparative morphological characters. Zoologica Scripta 33(6):511-550.
  • Bitsch, J. 2001. The hexapod appendage: Basic structure, development and origin. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 37: 175-193.
  • Boudreaux, H. B. 1979. Arthropod Phylogeny with Special Reference to Insects. New York, J. Wiley.
  • Brusca, Richard C., and Gary J. Brusca. 2002. Invertebrates, Second Edition. xx + 936
  • Carapelli, A., F. Frati, F. Nardi, R. Dallai, and C. Simon. 2000. Molecular phylogeny of the apterygotan insects based on nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Pedobiologia 44:361-373.
  • Carpenter, F. M. 1992. Superclass Hexapoda. Volumes 3 and 4 of Part R, Arthropoda 4 of Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America.
  • Chapman, R. F. 1998. The Insects: Structure and Function. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K., New York.
  • Daly, H. V., J. T. Doyen, and A. H. Purcell III. 1998. Introduction to Insect Biology and Diversity, 2nd edn. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Deuve, T. 2001. The epipleural field in hexapods. Annales de la Societe Entomologique de France 37:195-231.
  • Dindall, D. L. 1990. Soil Biology Guide. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
  • Evans, H. E. 1993. Life on a Little-Known Planet. New York, Lyons & Burford.
  • Fittkau, E. J. and H. Klinge. 1973. On biomass and trophic structure of the central Amazonian rain forest ecosystem. Biotropica 5:2-14.
  • Gaunt, M. W. and M. A. Miles. 2002. An insect molecular clock dates the origin of the insects and accords with palaeontological and biogeographic landmarks. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19(5):748-761.
  • Grandcolas, P., ed. 1997. Origin of Biodiversity in Insects: Phylogenetic Tests of Evolutionary Scenarios. Mémoires du Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle vol. 173. Éditions du Muséum, Paris. 354 pp.
  • Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond. Journal of Paleontology 75:1152-1160.
  • Grimaldi, D. and M. S. Engel. 2005. Evolution of the Insects. Cambridge University Press.
  • Gupta, A. P. 1979. Arthropod Phylogeny. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 762 pp.
  • Haas, F., D. Waloszek, and R. Hartenberger. 2003. Devonohexapodus bocksbergensis, a new marine hexapod from the Lower Devonian Hunsrück Slates, and the origin of Atelocerata and Hexapoda. Organisms Diversity and Evolution 3:39-54.
  • Hennig, W. 1981. Insect Phylogeny. New York, J. Wiley.
  • Jamieson, B. G. M., R. Dallai, and B. Afzelius. 1999. Insects: Their Spermatozoa and Phylogeny. Science Publishers, Enfield, N. H.
  • Kjer, K. M. 2004. Aligned 18S and insect phylogeny. Systematic Biology 53(3):506-514.
  • Klass, K. D. and N. P. Kristensen. 2001. The ground plan and affinities of hexapods: Recent progress and open problems. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 37:265-298.
  • Koch, M. 2000. The cuticular cephalic endoskeleton of primarily wingless hexapods: ancestral state and evolutionary changes. Pedobiologia 44:374-385.
  • Koch, M. 2001. Mandibular mechanisms and the evolution of hexapods. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France 37:129-174.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1975. The phylogeny of hexapod "orders". A critical review of recent accounts. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 13:1–44.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1981. Phylogeny of insect orders. Annual Review of Entomology 26:135-157.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1991. Phylogeny of extant hexapods. Pp. 125-140 in Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Volume I and II. Second Edition. I. D. Naumann, P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn eds. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1995. Forty years' insect phylogenetic systematics. Zoologische Beiträge NF 36(1):83-124.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1998. The groundplan and basal diversification of the hexapods. Pages 281-293 in Arthropod Relationships. R. A. Fortey and R. H. Thomas, eds. Systematics Association Special Volume Series 55. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Kukalová-Peck, J. 1987. New Carboniferous Diplura, Monura, and Thysanura, the hexapod ground plan, and the role of thoracic lobes in the origin of wings (Insecta). Canadian Journal of Zoology 65:2327-2345.
  • Kukalová-Peck, J. 1991. Fossil history and the evolution of hexapod structures. Pages 141–179 in Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Volume I and II. Second Edition. I. D. Naumann, P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn eds. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
  • Labandeira, C. C. 1997. Insect mouthparts: Ascertaining the paleobiology of insect feeding strategies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28:153-193.
  • Labandeira, C. C., and J. J. Sepkoski, jr. 1993. Insect diversity in the fossil record. Science 261:310–315.
  • Labandeira, C.C. 1994. A compendium of fossil insect families. Milwaukee Public Museum Contributions in Biology and Geology 88:1-71.
  • Luan, Y., J. M. Mallatt, R. Xie, Y. Yang, and W. Yin. 2005. The phylogenetic positions of three basal-hexapod groups (Protura, Diplura, and Collembola) based on ribosomal RNA gene sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution 2005 22(7):1579-1592.
  • Luan, Y., Y. Zhang, Q. Yue, J. Pang, R. Xie, and W. Yin. 2003. Ribosomal DNA gene and phylogenetic relationships of Diplura and lower hexapods. Science in China, Series C: Life Sciences 46(1):67-76.
  • Merritt, R.W. and K.W.Cummins, eds. 1984. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Second Edition. Kendall-Hunt.
  • Nardi, F., G. Spinsanti, J. L. Boore, A. Carapelli, R. Dallai, and F. Frati. 2003. Hexapod origins: monophyletic or paraphyletic? Science 299(5614):1887-1889.
  • Naumann, I. D., P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn, eds. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Volume I and II. Second Edition. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
  • Ross, A. J. and E. A. Jarzembowski. 1993. Hexapoda. Pages 363-426 in The Fossil Record 2. M. J. Benton, ed. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Snodgrass, R. E. 1935. Principles of Insect Morphology. McGraw-Hill, New York. 667 pp.
  • Snodgrass, R. E. 1952. A Textbook of Arthropod Anatomy. Comstock Publishing Associates, Ithaca, N.Y. 363 pp.
  • Stehr, F. W. 1987. Immature Insects, vol. 1. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendal/Hunt. 754 pp.
  • Stehr, F. W. 1991. Immature Insects, vol. 2. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendal/Hunt. 974 pp.
  • Stys, P. and S. Bilinski. 1990. Ovariole types and the phylogeny of hexapods. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 65:401-429.
  • Stys, P., J. Zrzavy, and F. Weyda. 1993. Phylogeny of the Hexapoda and ovarian metamerism. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 68:365-379.
  • Wheeler, W. C., M. Whiting, Q. D. Wheeler, and J. M. Carpenter. 2001. The phylogeny of the extant hexapod orders. Cladistics 17:113-169.
  • Willmann, R. 1998. Advances and problems in insect phylogeny. Pages 269–279 in Arthropod Relationships. R. A. Fortey and R. H. Thomas, eds. Systematics Association Special Volume Series 55. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Wilson, E. O. 1988. The diversity of life. Pp. 68-78 in H. J. Blij (ed.), Earth '88. Changing Geographic Perspectives. National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.
  • WoRMS (2015). Hexapoda. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=1278
  • Wooton, R. J. 1981. Paleozoic insects. Annual Review of Entomology 26:319-344.
  • von Lieven, A. F. 2000. The transformation from monocondylous to dicondylous mandibles in the Insecta. Zoologischer Anzeiger 239:139-146.

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!