The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Averof, M. and S. M. Cohen. 1997. Evolutionary origin of insect wings from ancestral gills. Nature 385:627-630.
  • Boudreaux, H. B. 1979. Arthropod Phylogeny with Special Reference to Insects. New York, J. Wiley.
  • Carpenter, F .M. 1992. Superclass Hexapoda. Volumes 3 and 4 of Part R, Arthropoda 4 of Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of America.
  • Dickinson, M. H., S. Hannaford, and J. Palka. 1997. The evolution of insect wings and their sensory apparatus. Brain Behavior And Evolution 50:13-24.
  • Dudley, R. 2000. The evolutionary physiology of animal flight: Paleobiological and present perspectives. Annual Review of Physiology 62:135-155.
  • Grimaldi, D. 2001. Insect evolutionary history from Handlirsch to Hennig, and beyond. Journal of Paleontology 75:1152-1160.
  • Hasenfuss, I. 2002. A possible evolutionary pathway to insect flight starting from lepismatid organization. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 40(2):65-81.
  • Hennig, W. 1981. Insect Phylogeny. New York, J. Wiley.
  • Hovmöller, R., T. Pape, and M. Källersjö. 2002. The Palaeoptera problem: Basal pterygote phylogeny inferred from 18S and 28S rDNA Sequences. Cladistics 18:313-323.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., R. D. C. Ortiz, R. Callejas Posada & M. Merello. (eds.) 2011. Fl. Antioquia: Cat. 2: 9–939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kingsolver, J. G. and M. A. R. Koehl. 1994. Selective factors in the evolution of insect wings. Annual Review of Entomology 39:425-451.
  • Kjer, K. M. 2004. Aligned 18S and insect phylogeny. Systematic Biology 53(3):506-514.
  • Klass, K. D. 1998. The proventriculus of the Dicondylia, with comments on evolution and phylogeny in Dictyoptera and Odonata (Insecta). Zoologischer Anzeiger 237(1):15-42.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1975. The phylogeny of hexapod "orders". A critical review of recent accounts. Zeitschrift für zoologische Systematik und Evolutionsforschung 13:1–44.
  • Kristensen, N. P. 1991. Phylogeny of extant arthropods. Pages 125-140 in Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Volume I. Second Edition. I. D. Naumann, P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn eds. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
  • Kukalová-Peck, J. 1983. Origin of insect wing and wing articulation from the insect leg. Canadian Journal of Zoology 61:1618–1669.
  • Kukalová-Peck, J. and C. Braukmann. 1990. Wing folding in pterygote insects, and the oldest Diaphanopterodea from the early Late Carbonferous of West Germany. Canadian Journal of Zoology 68:1104-1111.
  • Marden, J. H., B. C. O'Donnell, M. A. Thomas, and J. Y. Bye. 2000. Surface-skimming stoneflies and mayflies: The taxonomic and mechanical diversity of two-dimensional aerodynamic locomotion. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 73(6):751-764.
  • Marden, J. H. and M. G. Kramer. 1994. Surface-skimming stoneflies - a possible intermediate stage in insect flight evolution. Science 266(5184):427-430.
  • Meletemata Botanica 32. 1832. (Melet. Bot.)
  • Merritt, R. W. and K. W.Cummins, eds. 1984. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America, Second Edition. Kendall-Hunt.
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali (eds). 1980-2005. Fl. Pakistan Univ. of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Naumann, I. D., P. B. Carne, J. F. Lawrence, E. S. Nielsen, J. P. Spradberry, R. W. Taylor, M. J. Whitten and M. J. Littlejohn, eds. 1991. The Insects of Australia: A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Volume I and II. Second Edition. Carlton, Victoria, Melbourne University Press.
  • Ogden, T. H. and M. F. Whiting. 2003. The problem with "the Paleoptera Problem:" sense and sensitivity. Cladistics 19(5):432-442.
  • Taylor, G. K. 2001. Mechanics and aerodynamics of insect flight control. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 76(4):449-471.
  • Wheeler, W. C., M. Whiting, Q. D. Wheeler, and J. M. Carpenter. 2001. The phylogeny of the extant hexapod orders. Cladistics 17:113-169.
  • Will, K. W. 1995. Plecopteran surface-skimming and insect flight evolution. Science 270(5242):1684-1685.
  • Wootton, R. J. 1988. The historical Ecology of aquatic insects - an overview. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 62(1-4):477-492.
  • Wootton, R. J. 1992. Functional morphology of insect wings. Annual Review of Entomology 37:113-140.
  • Wootton, R. J. and C. R. Betts. 1986. Homology and function in the wings of Heteroptera. Systematic Entomology 11(3):389-400.
  • Wootton, R. J. and J. Kukalová-Peck. 2000. Flight adaptations in Palaeozoic Palaeoptera (Insecta). Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 75(1):129-167.


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