The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • (Insecta, Heteroptera). Zoologica 48 (143): 1-302.
  • Andersen, N. M. 1982. The Semiaquatic Bugs (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha) Phylogeny, Adaptations, Biogeography and Classification. Entomonograph vol. 3, Klampanborg, Denmark.
  • Bourgoin, T. 1986. Morphological value of the maxillary plate in the Hemiptera: Phylogenetic remarks. Annales De La Societe Entomologique De France 22(4): 413-422.
  • Carver, M., G.F. Gross and T.E. Woodward. 1991. Hemiptera (bugs, leafhoppers, cicadas, aphids, scale insects etc.). Pages 429-509 in The Insects of Australia. I.D. Naumann, ed. Melbourne University Press, Melbourne, Australia.
  • Cobben, R. H. 1968,1978. Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera. Parts 1,2. Wageningen, Netherlands.
  • Dolling, W. R. 1991. The Hemiptera. Oxford University Press, London: 274 pp.
  • Drake, C. J. and Ruhoff, F. A. 1965. Lace bugs of the world: a catalogue (Hemiptera: Tingidae. Smithsonian Institution, Washington: 634 pp.
  • H. E. Savely, 1939. Ecological relations of certain animals in dead pine and oak logs. Ecol. Monogr. 9:321-385, from pp. 335, 353-56, 377-85.
  • Henry, T.J. & R.C.Froeschner, eds. 1988. Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. E. J. Brill, Leiden.
  • Henry, Thomas J., and Richard C. Froeschner, eds. 1988. Catalog of the Heteroptera, or True Bugs, of Canada and the Continental United States. xix + 958
  • Horvath, Geza. 1927. General catalogue of the Hemiptera. Smith College Pub, Northhampton, Mass: Vol 23.
  • Manher, M. 1993. Systema Cryptoceratorum Phylogeneticum
  • McGavin, George C. 1993. Bugs of the World. 192
  • Miller, N. C. E., 1956, Biology of the Heteroptera. Methuen, London
  • Nom. ed. 2 1: 756. 1840. (Nom. ed. 2)
  • Parshley, H. M. 1925. A bibliography of North American Hemiptera-Heteroptera. Smith College Pub., Northhampton, Mass.: 252 pp.
  • Schaefer, C. W. (ed.) 1996. Studies on Hemipteran Phylogeny. Proceedings of Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Entomological Society of America, Lanham, Maryland.
  • Schaefer, C.W. 1990. The Hemiptera of North America: what we do and do not know. Pages 105-118 in Systematics of the North American insects and arachnids: status and needs. Contribution No. 3 to the National Biological Survey. Info. Ser. 90-1. Kosztarab, M., Schafer, C.W. . eds. Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, Blacksburg.
  • Schuh, R. T. 1979. Review of Cobben, Evolutionary trends in Heteroptera. Syst.Zool. 28:653-656.
  • Schuh, R. T. 1986, The influence of cladistics on heteropteran classification. Annual Review of Entomology 31: 67-94.
  • Schuh, R. T. and P. Stys. 1991. Phylogenetic analysis of cimicomorphan family relationships (Heteroptera). Journal Of The New York Entomological Society 99(3): 298-350.
  • Schuh, R.T. and J.A. Slater. 1995. True Bugs of the World (Hemiptera: Heteroptera). Classification and Natural History. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. xii + 336 pp.
  • Schuh, R.T., C. Weirauch, and W.C. Wheeler. 2009. Phylogenetic relationships within the Cimicomorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): a total-evidence analysis. Systematic Entomology 34: 15-48.
  • Shcherbakov, D.E. and Y.A. Popov. 2002. Superorder Cimicidea Laicharting, 1781. Order Hemiptera Linné, 1758. The bugs, cicadas, plantlice, scale insects, etc. (= Cimicida Laicharting, 1781, = Homoptera Leach, 1815 + Heteroptera Latreille, 1810). pp. 143-157. In: Rasnitsyn, A. P.; Quicke, D. L. J. (eds.). History of Insects. Kluwer Academic Publishers, the Netherlands. 517 p.
  • Slater, J. A. & R. M. Baranowski, 1978. How to Know the True Bugs (Hemiptera - Heteroptera). Brown, Dubuque.
  • Stys, P. 1996. Some groundplan characters of the Heteroptera. Pages 111-118 in Studies on Hemipteran Phylogeny. C. W. Schaefer, ed. Proceedings of Thomas Say Publications in Entomology, Entomological Society of America, Lanham, Maryland.
  • Stys, P. and Kerzhner, 1975. The rank and nomenclature of higher taxa in recent Heteroptera. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 72: 64-79.
  • Torre-Bueno, J. R. 1939. A synopsis of the Hemiptera-Heteroptera of America north of Mexico. Brooklin Entomological Society, Brooklin, New York: 122 pp.
  • Vasarhelyi, T. 1987. On the relationships of the eight aradid subfamilies (Heteroptera). Acta Zoologica Hungarica 33(1-2): 263-268.
  • Vasquez, M. and T. Lopez. 1999. Filogenia de Heteroptera (Phylogeny of Heteroptera). Boletin de la SEA 26:427-434.
  • Wheeler, W.C., R.T. Schuh, and R. Bang. 1993. Cladistic relationships among higher groups of Heteroptera: congruence between morphological and molecular data sets. Entomologica Scandinavica 24:121-137.
  • WoRMS (2005). Heteroptera. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Wootton, R. J. and C. R. Betts. 1986. Homology and function in the wings of Heteroptera. Systematic Entomology 11(3): 389-400.
  • Wygodzinsky, P. W. and K. Schmidt. 1991. Revision of the New World Enicocephalomorpha (Heteroptera). Bulletin of The American Museum of Natural History 200: 1-265.
  • Zrzavy, J. 1992. Evolution of antennae and historical ecology of the hemipteran insects (Paraneoptera). Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 89(2): 77-86.
  • Zrzavy, J. 1992. Morphogenesis of antennal exoskeleton in Heteroptera (Insecta): From phylogenetic to ontogenic pattern. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca 89(3): 205-216.


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