Comprehensive Description

Read full entry

Batrachocephalus ZBK Bleeker, 1846

(fig. 23)

Batrachocephalus ZBK Bleeker, 1846: 176. Type species: Batrachocephalus ageneiosus ZBK Bleeker, 1846 (= Ageneiosus mino Hamilton, 1822). Type by monotypy. Gender: Masculine.

Diagnosis. The combination of exclusive (1 to 6) and non-exclusive (7 to 14) characters define and distinguishes Batrachocephalus ZBK from all other ariid genera: (1) accessory tooth plates located between lateral ethmoid and premaxilla; (2) nasal fan shaped; (3) anterior part of opercle subrectangular (fig. 24); (4) lateral portion of ceratohyal columnar and very strong; (5) third basibranchial cup-shaped, very long and thin (fig. 25); (6) maxillary barbel absent; (7) mesethmoid very wide at median portion (shared with Bagre , Brustiarius ZBK , Carlarius , Cochlefelis ZBK , Doiichthys ZBK , Sciades couma , S. emphysetus ZBK , S. guatemalensis , S. herzbergii ZBK , S. leptaspis , S. passany and S. proops ); (8) accessory tooth plates small and oval-shaped (shared with Cathorops , Cephalocassis melanochir , Cryptarius ZBK , Doiichthys ZBK and Hemiarius ZBK ); (9) posterior cranial fontanel absent [shared with Sciades (with exception of S. platypogon )]; (10) epiphyseal bar indistinct [shared with Sciades (with exception of S. platypogon )]; (11) lachrymal with two anterior and one mesial branches (fig. 26) (shared with Bagre ); (12) epihyal long its length more than 1.5 longer than its depth (fig. 27) (shared with Bagre , Brustiarius ZBK and Cochlefelis ZBK ); (13) urohyal anterior margin not notched (shared with Cathorops and Plicofollis ZBK platystomus ); (14) second dorsal process of cleithrum parallel to posterior cleithral process [shared with Aspistor ZBK , Bagre , Brustiarius ZBK , Carlarius , Cinetodus ZBK , Cochlefelis ZBK , Neoarius ZBK , Netuma , Notarius ZBK , Pachyula ZBK , Potamosilurus (with exception of P. velutinus ) and Sciades ].

Supplementary morphological characters. Cephalic shield granulated visible under the skin; very small fenestra limited by frontal and lateral ethmoid bones barely visible under the skin; medial groove of neurocranium very distinct, limited by frontal bones and/or on supraoccipital; posterior cranial fontanel entirely closed at all stages of development; fenestra limited by supraoccipital, pterotic and sphenotic absent; fossa limited by pterotic, supracleithrum and extrascapular very well developed; epioccipital not invading into dorsal portion of cephalic shield; occipital process short, progressively narrower toward its posterior part; anterior and median nuchal plates fused, indistinct forming a structure of semi-lunar aspect; vomerine tooth plates absent; accessory tooth plates narrow and transversely elongate, bearing molariform teeth; maxillary barbel absent; two pairs of mental barbels; base of adipose fin moderately long, about half the length of anal-fin base; lateral line bifurcated at caudal region, reaching base of caudal-fin upper and lower lobes; cleithrum wide, with second dorsal process on its upper portion; posterior cleithral process moderately long and distinct from second dorsal process of cleithrum.

Distribution and habitat. South and southeast Asia, marine and brackish waters.


Public Domain

MagnoliaPress via Plazi


Belongs to 0 communities

This taxon hasn't been featured in any communities yet.

Learn more about Communities


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!