The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- Kitching, Ian J., and Jean-Marie Cadiou. 2000. Hawkmoths of the World: An Annotated and Illustrated Revisionary Checklist (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). 226
- Tuttle, James P. 2007. The Hawk Moths of North America: A Natural History Study of the Sphingidae of the United States and Canada. 253
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