The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Anderson, C. L. 1998. Phylogenetic relationships of the Myxozoa. Pages 341–350 in: Evolutionary Relationships among Protozoa. G. H. Coombs, K. Vickerman, M. A. Sleigh and A. Warren, eds. Chapman & Hall, London.
  • Anderson, C. L., E. U. Canning and B. Okamura. 1998. A triploblast origin for Myxozoa? Nature392:346.
  • Anderson, C. L., E. U. Canning and B. Okamura. 1999. Molecular data implicate bryozoans as hosts for PKX (Phylum Myxozoa) and identify a clade of bryozoan parasites within the Myxozoa. Parasitology 119(6):555-561.
  • Bartholomew, J.L., S.D. Atkinson, S.L. Hallett, L.J. Lowenstine, M.M. Garner, C.H. Gardiner, B.A. Rideout, M.K. Keel and J.D. Brown. 2008. Myxozoan parasitism in waterfowl. International Journal for Parasitology 38: 1199-1207.
  • Boreham, R.E., S. Hendrick, P.J. O'Donoghue, and D.J. Stenzel. 1998. Incidental finding of Myxobolus spores (Protozoa: Myxozoa) in stool samples from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36: 3728-3730.
  • Canning E. U., S. Tops, A. Curry, T. S. Wood, and B. Okamura. 2002. Ecology, development and pathogenicity of Buddenbrockia plumatellae Schröder, 1910 (Myxozoa, Malacosporea) (syn. Tetracapsula bryozoides) and establishment of Tetracapsuloides n. gen. for Tetracapsula bryosalmonae. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 49(4):280-295.
  • Canning, E. U. and B. Okamura. 2004. Biodiversity and evolution of the myxozoa. Advances in Parasitology 56:43-131.
  • Canning, E. U., A. Curry, S. W. Feist, M. Longshaw, and B. Okamura. 2000. A new class and order of myxozoans to accommodate parasites of bryozoans with ultrastructural observations on Tetracapsula bryosalmonae (PKX organism). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 47:456?468.
  • Dykova, I., T. Tyml, I. Fiala and J. Lom. 2007. New data on Soricimyxum fegati (Myxozoa) including analysis of its phylogenetic position inferred from the SSU rRNA gene sequence. Folia Parasitologica 54: 272-276.
  • Fiala I., 2006. The phylogeny of Myxosporea (Myxozoa) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA gene analysis. International Journal for Parasitology, 36, 1521-1534.
  • Griffiths CL, Robinson TB, Lange L, Mead A, 2010. Marine Biodiversity in South Africa: An Evaluation of Current States of Knowledge. PLoS ONE 5(8): e12008. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012008
  • Hanelt, B., D. Van Schyndel, C.M. Adema, L. Lewis and E.S. Loker. 1996. The phylogenetic position of Rhopalura ophiocomae (Orthonectida) based on 18S ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Molecular Biology and Evolution 13: 1187-1191.
  • Holzer, A.S., C. Sommerville, R. Wootten. 2004. Molecular relationships and phylogeny in a community of myxosporeans and actinosporeans based on their 18S rDNA sequences. International Journal for Parasitology 34: 1099-1111.
  • Jiménez-Guri, E., H. Philippe, B. Okamura, P. W. H. Holland. 2007. Buddenbrockia is a cnidarian worm. Science 317(5834):116-118.
  • Kent, M. L., K. B.Andree, J. L.Bartholomew, M.El-Matbouli, S. S.Desser, R. H.Devlin, S. W.Feist, R. P.Hedrick, R. W.Hoffmann, J.Khattra, S. L.Hallett, R. J. G.Lester, M.Longshaw, O.Palenzeula, M. E.Siddall, and C.Xiao. 2001. Recent advances in our knowledge of the Myxozoa. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 48:395-413.
  • Kent, M.L., L. Margolis, D.J.Whitaker, G.E. Hoskins and T.E. McDonald. 1994. Review of Myxosporea of importance to salmonid fisheries and aquaculture in British Columbia. Folia Parasitologica 41: 27–37.
  • Lom J. and I. Dykova. 2006. Myxozoan genera: definition and notes on taxonomy, life-cycle terminology and pathogenic species. Folia Parasitologica 53(1):1-36.
  • Moncada, L.I., M.C.Lopez, M.I.Murcia, S. Nicholls, F. Leon, O.L. Guio and A. Corredor. 2001. Myxobolus sp., another opportunistic parasite in immunosuppressed patients? Journal of Clinical Microbiology 39: 1938-1940.
  • Monteiro, A. S., B. Okamura, and P. W. H. Holland. 2002. Orphan worm finds a home: Buddenbrockia is a Myxozoan. Molecular Biology and Evolution 19:968-971.
  • Nehring, R.B. and P.G. Walker. 1996. Whirling disease in the wild: The new reality in the intermountain West. Fisheries 21: 28-30.
  • Okamura, B. and E. U. Canning. 2003. Orphan worms and, homeless parasites enhance bilaterian diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18(12):633-639.
  • Okamura, B., A. Curry, T. S. Wood and E. U. Canning. 2002. Ultrastructure of Buddenbrockia identifies it as a myxozoan and verifies the bilaterian origin of the Myxozoa. Parasitology 124:215-223.
  • P. Larson, J. E. Brittain, L. Lein, A. Lillehammer and K. Tangen, The lake ecosystem of Ovre Heimdalsvatn, Holarctic Ecology 1:304-320, from p. 311 (1978).
  • Palenzuela, O., M.J. Redondo and P. Alvarez-Pellitero. 2002. Description of Enteromyxum scophthalmi gen. nov., sp nov (Myxozoa), an intestinal parasite of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.) using morphological and ribosomal RNA sequence data. Parasitology 124: 369-379.
  • Pote, L.M., L.A. Hanson and R. Shivaji 2000. Small subunit ribosomal RNA sequences link the cause of proliferative gill disease in channel catfish to Henneguya n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea). Journal of Aquatic Animal Health 12: 230-240.
  • Prunescu, C.C., P. Prunescu, Z. Pucek and J. Lom. 2007. The first finding of myxosporean development from plasmodia to spores in terrestrial mammals: Soricimyxum fegati gen. et sp n. (Myxozoa) from Sorex araneus (Soricomorpha). Folia Parasitologica 54: 159-164.
  • Schlegel, M., J. Lom, A. Stechmann, D. Bernhard, D. Leipe, I. Dyková, and M. L. Sogin. 1996. Phylogenetic analysis of complete small subunit ribosomal RNA coding region of Myxidium lieberkuehni: evidence that Myxozoa are Metazoa and related to the Bilateria. Archiv für Protistenkunde 147:1–9.
  • Siddall, M. E. and M. F. Whiting. 1999. Long-branch abstractions. Cladistics 15:9–24.
  • Siddall, M. E., D. S. Martin, D. Bridge, S. S. Desser, and D. K. Cone. 1995. The demise of a phylum of protists: phylogeny of the Myxozoa and other parasitic cnidaria. Journal of Parasitology 81:961–967.
  • Smothers, J. F., C. D. von Dohlen, L. H. Smith, Jr., and R. D. Spall. 1994. Molecular evidence that the myxozoan protists are metazoans. Science 265:1719–1721.
  • Weill, R. 1938. L 'interpretation des Cnidosporidies et Ia valeur taxonomique de Ieur cnidome. Leur cycle comparé ii Ia phase Iarvaire des Narcomeduses Cuninides. Travaux de la Station Zoologique de Wimereaux 13: 727-744.
  • Whipps, C. M., G. Grossel, R. D. Adlard, H. Yokoyama, M. S. Bryant, B. L. Munday, and M. L. Kent. 2004. Phylogeny of the multivalvulidae (Myxozoa : Myxosporea) based on comparative ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. Journal of Parasitology 90 (3):618-622.
  • Wolf, K. and M.E. Markiw. 1984. Biology contravenes taxonomy in the Myxozoa: new discoveries show alternation of invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. Science 225: 1449-1452.
  • Xiao, C. and S. S. Desser. 2000. Cladistic analysis of myxozoan species with known alternating life-cycles. Systematic Parasitology 46:81–91.
  • Zrzavy, J. 2001. The interrelationships of metazoan parasites: a review of phylum- and higher-level hypotheses from recent morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. Folia Parasitologica 48:81-103.
  • Zrzavy, J. and V. Hypsa. 2003. Myxozoa, Polypodium, and the origin of the Bilateria: The phylogenetic position of "Endocnidozoa" in light of the rediscovery of Buddenbrockia. Cladistics 19(2):164-169.
  • Štolc, A. 1899. Actinomyxidies, nouveau groupe de Mesozoaires parent des Myxosporidies. Bulletin International de l'Academie des Sciences de Boheme. 22: 1–12.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!