- Dorsal cuticular flap of the metapleural gland anteriorly reduced and posteromedially extended
- Petiole with complete tergosternal fusion
- Postpygidial glands absent
- Slit-like junction of pygidium and hypopygium
- Sting vestigial
- Pygidial glands producing cyclopenanoid monoterpenes (iridoids)
- Larvae with reduced hairs
- Reduced (sensilliform) larval maxillary palp and galea
- Small larval sericteries and reduced larval neck
SUBFAMILY DOLICHODERINAE HNS FOREL
This subfamily includes fifteen genera with the greatest number of species distributed through the tropics. The sting is vestigial or absent but many species have poison glands that excrete a repellent fluid through the anal orifice. The gaster has a reduced number of segments compared with Formicinae HNS and Ponerinae of which four only are visible in dorsal view in the female castes and five in the males. Pupae are not protected by cocoons. The two genera treated here both belong in the tribe Tapinomini HNS .
Keys to genera of Dolichoderinae HNS
Queens and workers
1 Petiole scale well developed, not obscured by overhanging gaster; front border of clypeus convex and entire (Fig. 20)................................. Iridomyrmex HNS Mayr (p. 33)
- Petiole a small node overhung by first gastral segment; front border of clypeus straight, incised or concave (Fig. 22) ............................ Tapinoma HNS Forster (p. 34)
1 Petiole scale well developed. Scape short, not reaching occipital margin Iridomyrmex HNS Mayr (p. 33)
- Petiole a reduced node. Scape long, overreaching occipital margin Tapinoma HNS Forster (p. 34)
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
Specimens with Sequences:4446
Specimens with Barcodes:3820
Species With Barcodes:240
Dolichoderinae is a subfamily of ants, which includes species such as the Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), the erratic ant, the odorous house ant, and the cone ant. The subfamily presents a great diversity of species throughout the world, distributed in different biogeographic regions, from the Palearctic, Nearctic, Afrotropical region and Malaysia, to the Middle East, Australian, and Neotropical regions.
This subfamily is distinguished by having a single petiole (no post-petiole) and a slit-like orifice, from which chemical compounds are released, rather than the round acidopore encircled by hairs that typifies the family to which it belongs, Formicidae. Dolichoderine ants do not possess a sting, unlike ants in some other subfamilies, such as Ponerinae and Myrmicinae, instead relying on the chemical defensive compounds produced from the anal gland.
Of the compounds produced by dolichoderine ants, several terpenoids were identified including the previously unknown iridomyrmecin, isoiridomyrmecin, and iridodial. Such compounds are responsible for the smell given off by ants of this subfamily when crushed or disturbed.
Tribes and genera
- Bothriomyrmecini Dubovikov, 2005
- Dolichoderini Forel, 1878
- Dolichoderus Lund, 1831
- Leptomyrmecini Emery, 1913
- Anillidris Santschi, 1936
- Anonychomyrma Donisthorpe, 1947
- Azteca Forel, 1878
- †Chronomyrmex McKellar, Glasier & Engel, 2013
- Doleromyrma Forel, 1907
- Dorymyrmex Mayr, 1866
- Forelius Emery, 1888
- Froggattella Forel, 1902
- Gracilidris Wild & Cuezzo, 2006
- Iridomyrmex Mayr, 1862
- Leptomyrmex Mayr, 1862
- Linepithema Mayr, 1866
- Nebothriomyrmex Dubovikov, 2004
- Ochetellus Shattuck, 1992
- Papyrius Shattuck, 1992
- Philidris Shattuck, 1992
- Turneria Forel, 1895
- †Usomyrma Dlussky, Radchenko & Dubovikoff, 2014
- Tapinomini Emery, 1913
- incertae sedis
- †Alloiomma Zhang, 1989
- †Asymphylomyrmex Wheeler, 1915
- †Elaeomyrmex Carpenter, 1930
- †Elaphrodites Zhang, 1989
- †Eldermyrmex Heterick & Shattuck, 2011
- †Emplastus Donisthorpe, 1920
- †Eotapinoma Dlussky, 1988
- †Eurymyrmex Zhang, Sun & Zhang, 1994
- †Kotshkorkia Dlussky, 1981
- †Leptomyrmula Emery, 1913
- †Miomyrmex Carpenter, 1930
- †Petraeomyrmex Carpenter, 1930
- †Proiridomyrmex Dlussky & Rasnitsyn, 2003
- †Protazteca Carpenter, 1930
- †Yantaromyrmex Dlussky & Dubovikoff, 2013
- †Zherichinius Dlussky, 1988
- Bolton, B. (2015). "Dolichoderinae". AntCat. Retrieved 4 January 2015.
- Cardoso, D.; Cristiano, M. P.; Barros, L. S.; Lopes, D.; Pompolo, S. (2012). "First cytogenetic characterization of a species of the arboreal ant genus Azteca Forel, 1978 (Dolichoderinae, Formicidae)". Comparative Cytogenetics 6 (2): 107. doi:10.3897/CompCytogen.v6i2.2397.
- Fisher, Brian L. and Stefan P. Cover (2007) Ants of North America: a guide to the genera
- Wilson, E. O.; Pavan, M. (1959). "Glandular Sources and Specificity of Some Chemical Releasers of Social Behavior in Dolichoderine Ants". Psyche: A Journal of Entomology 66 (4): 70. doi:10.1155/1959/45675.
- This article incorporates text from a scholarly publication published under a copyright license that allows anyone to reuse, revise, remix and redistribute the materials in any form for any purpose: Cardoso, D.; Cristiano, M. P.; Barros, L. S.; Lopes, D.; Pompolo, S. (2012). "First cytogenetic characterization of a species of the arboreal ant genus Azteca Forel, 1978 (Dolichoderinae, Formicidae)". Comparative Cytogenetics 6 (2): 107. doi:10.3897/CompCytogen.v6i2.2397. Please check the source for the exact licensing terms.
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