Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Moist Deciduous Forests"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
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Summary

Trees in evergreen forests up to 1800 m.
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Distribution

"
Global Distribution

Indo-Malesia and China

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Sindhudurg Karnataka: Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Dindigul, Nilgiri, Kanniyakumari, Theni, Tirunelveli"
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"Indomalayasia; in the Western Ghats- South, Central and south Maharashtra Sahyadris."
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Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Taiwan, Yunnan [Bangladesh, Bhutan, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs or small to large trees, to 28 m tall. Petiole glabrous to finely pubescent, 0.5-5 cm; leaflet blades usually elliptic to elliptic-oblong but grading to obovate, oblanceolate, or nearly oblong, 3.5-24.5 × 2-8.5 cm, base cuneate or sometimes rounded or attenuate, apex obtusely acuminate with an acumen to 2 cm or sometimes obtuse or rounded. Inflorescences 2-25 cm, few to many flowered. Pedicel 2-12 mm. Sepals 0.6-1.5 mm. Petals 4-12 mm. Ovary completely pubescent or rarely pubescent only at apex, with or without apical septicidal fissures; style pubescent at base, otherwise glabrous. Fruit subglobose or sometimes grading to ellipsoid, pyriform, or broadly conic, 0.5-1.5 cm in diam., with or without apical septicidal fissures, usually ± sparsely pubescent with ring of dense appressed trichomes at base but grading to tomentose or glabrous, apex often apiculate; outer part of pericarp (exocarp and mesocarp) drying 0.5-3 mm thick; mesocarp woody or subwoody. Seeds reddish black to black, 3-7 mm. Fl. Apr-Aug, fr. Aug-Dec.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Evergreen trees, bark greyish-yellow; blaze dull red with white narrow streaks; branchlets stout, terete, glabrous. Leaves unifoliolate, opposite, decussate, estipulate; rachis 10-30 mm long, slender, glabrous, grooved above; petiolule upto 2 mm, lamina 4.3-15 x 1.8-7.5 cm, obovate, obovate-oblong or oblanceolate, base acute or cuneate, apex obtusely acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, chartaceous; lateral nerves 9-15 pairs, pinnate, slender, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent. Flowers bisexual, yellowish-white; in trichotomous, corymbose, axillary cymes; peduncle slender 6-12 cm long; sepals 4, lobes ovate, connate, margin ciliate; petals 4, free, oblong, densely hairy within; stamens 8, 2-seriate; filaments unequal, densely reflexed hairy; disc 8-angled, minutely pubescent; ovary superior, conical, partly immersed in the disc, 4-angled densely silky outside, 4-celled, ovules 2 in each cell; style stout; stigma 4-grooved. Fruit a berry, subglobose, pale-brown, obscurely lobed; seeds black."
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Diagnostic

"
Habit

Evergreen trees up to 10 m tall.

Trunk\bark

Bark greyish, smooth; blaze red.

Branchlets

Branchlets stout, terete, glabrous.

Leaves

Leaves simple, opposite or subopposite, decussate; petiole 1.5-3.3 cm long, canaliculate, glabrous, articulate, swollen at both ends; lamina 7-17 x 3.5-7.5 cm, elliptic, apex bluntly acuminate and curved back or sometimes obtuse to retuse, base cuneate-acute, margin entire, coriaceous or subcoriaceous, glabrous; midrib slightly raised above; secondary nerves 7-10 pairs; tertiary nerves broadly reticulate.

Flowers

Inflorescence axillary corymbose cymes; flowers yellowish white; pedicel ca. 1 cm long.

Fruit& seed

Drupe, 4-celled, subglobose, usually broader than long, slightly grooved, 0.8 x 1.2 cm; seed one.

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Diagnostic

Habit: Thorny Shrub or Small Tree
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Synonym

Jambolifera pedunculata Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 349. 1753; Acronychia apiculata Miquel; A. arborea Blume; A. barberi Gamble; A. elliptica Merrill & L. M. Perry; A. laurifolia Blume; Clausena simplicifolia Dalzell; Cyminosma pedunculata (Linnaeus) Candolle; Gela lanceolata Loureiro; J. arborea (Blume) Zollinger & Moritzi; J. rezinosa Loureiro; Laxmannia ankenda (Gaertner) Raeuschel; Melicope conferta Blanco; Selas lanceolatum (Loureiro) Sprengel; Ximenia lanceolata (Loureiro) Candolle.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

"Semi-evergreen forests, also in the plains"
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Secondary forests, woods or thickets on lower hills; near sea level to 900 m.
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General Ecology

Ecology

Trees in evergreen forests up to 1800 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-November
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Acronychia pedunculata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Acronychia pedunculata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Acronychia pedunculata

Acronychia pedunculata is a large shrub or small tree of the understory, gaps and fringes of low country and lower hill tropical forests of tropical Asia. Leaves: elliptic to subolong, often with tapered base. Twigs more or less angular, glabrous. Flowers: greenish white; I-acillary, corymbose panicles, about 14mm across in inflorescences of 4 to 24 cm (9 in) wide. Flowering: February-April, July-August. The fruits are cream to brownish yellow drupes, slightly angled, 0.5 to 1.5 cm (1 in) in diameter with a short apiculate tip. Leaves and fruits, and other parts of the plant, contain aromatic oils with a resinous scent. In Sri Lanka the flowering time is February-April and July-August.[1][2]

Contents

Distribution

South and Southeast Asia from India & Sri Lanka to South China & Taiwan and Indonesia & Papua New Guinea.[3]

Local names

Sinhala: Ankenda (අංකෙන්ද). Chinese: Jiangzhenxiang (降真香). Nepali: Paolay. Assamese: Laojan. Tamil & Malayalam: Mutta-nari.

Uses

Extracts of its leaves, bark, stems and fruits are widely used in herbal medicinal applications against sores, scabies and intestinal infections, due to their antifungal and antimicrobial properties. Contains aromatic, essential oils, which are used in China for making perfumes. The ripe fruit is edible and has a sweet acidic flavour. Unripe fruits have a strongly astringent, resinous taste. The roots are used as a fish-poison in southern Vietnam. [4][5][6][7] In India the wood is used for carving, poles, house construction and making the charcoal preferred by goldsmiths. And the tender leaves are used in salads and as a condiment.[8]

References

  1. ^ D. Dassanayake and F.R. Fosberg, A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon Vol. V, New Delhi, 1985, p. 412–13
  2. ^ M Ashton, S Gunatilleke, N Zoysa, MD Dassanayake et al, Field Guide to the Common Trees and Shrubs of Sri Lanka, Colombo 1997, Section 78-1 / p.333.
  3. ^ D. Dassanayake and F.R. Fosberg, A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon Vol. V, New Delhi, 1985, p. 412–13
  4. ^ S.K. Rodrigo, U.L.B. Jayasinghe and B.M.R. Bandara, 'Antifungal, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activity of Acronychia pedunculata and Adenanthera pavonina' in Proceedings of the Peradeniya University Research Sessions, Sri Lanka, Vol.12, Part I, 30thNovember 2007.
  5. ^ Lesueur D, De Rocca Serra D, Bighelli A, Hoi TM, Thai TH, Casanova J., 'Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Acronychia pedunculata (L.) Miq. from Vietnam,' in Natural Product Research: Formerly Natural Product Letters, 1478-6427, Volume 22, Issue 5, 2008, Pages 393 – 398.
  6. ^ C. P. Li, Chinese Herbal Medicine, U.S. Department of Health, 1974, p.49.
  7. ^ 'The William Gardener Collection of Chinese Medicinal Plants,' Edited by Anthony C. Dweck, 1995, pp.11–12. At http://www.dweckdata.com/Published_papers/William_Gardener.pdf (Accessed: 7.9.2010).
  8. ^ Ambasta SP (Ed.), ”The Useful Plants of India”, 1986. CSIR. New Delhi, pp 1-918.
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Notes

Comments

Acronychia pedunculata is the dominant in some plant communities.
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