The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Brugerolle, G. 2002. Cryptophagus subtilis: a new parasite of cryptophytes affiliated with the Perkinsozoa lineage. Europ. J. Protistol. 37:379-390.
  • Brugerolle, G. 2003. Apicomplexan parasite Cryptophagus renamed Rastrimonas gen. nov. Europ. J. Protistol., 39:101.
  • Bushek, D. et al. 2002. Serological affinities of the oyster pathogen Perkinsus marinus (Apicomplexa) with some dinoflagellates (Dinophyceae). J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 49:11-16.
  • Cavalier-Smith, T. and Chao, E.E. 2004. Protalveolate phylogeny and systematics and the origins of Sporozoa and dinoflagellates (phylum Myzozoa nom. nov.). Europ. J. Protistol. 40:185-212.
  • Dodge, J.D. & Crawford, R.M. 1971a. Fine structure of the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina: I. The general structure of the cell. Protistologica, 7:295-304.
  • Dodge, J.D. & Crawford, R.M. 1971b.Fine structure of the dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina: II. The flagellar system. Protistologica, 7:399-409.
  • Ellis, J.T., Morrison, D. A. & Jeffries, A.C. 1998. The phylum Apicomplexa: an update on the molecular phylogeny. In: Coombs, G., Vickerman, K., Sleigh, M. & Warren, A. (ed.), Evolutionary Relationships Among Protozoa. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston. p. 255-274.
  • Fast, N.M. et al. 2002. Re-examining alveolate evolution using multiple protein molecular phylogenies. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 49:30-37.
  • Fensome, R.A. et al. 1999. Dinoflagellate phylogeny revisited: reconciling morphological and molecular based phylogenies. Grana 38:66-80.
  • Fernández, I., Pardos, F., Benito, J. and Arroyo, N.L. 1999. Acrocoelus glossobalani gen. nov. et sp. nov., a protistan flagellate from the gut of the enteropneust Glossabalanus minutus. Europ. J. Protistol. 35:55-65.
  • Gajadhar, A.A., Marquardt, W.C., Hall, R., Gunderson, J., Carmona, E.V.A. and Sogin, M.L. 1991. Ribosomal RNA sequences of Sarcocystis muris, Theileria annulata, and Crypthecodinium cohnii.reveal evolutionary relationships among apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and ciliates. Mol. Biochem. Parasit. 45:147-154.
  • Goggin, C.L. & Barker, S.C. 1993. Phylogenetic position of the genus Perkinsus (Protista, Apicomplexa) based on small subunit ribosomal RNA. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol., 60:65-70.
  • Harper, J. T., Waanders, E. and Keeling, P. J. 2005. On the monophyly of chromalveolates using a six-protein phylogeny of eukaryotes. Int. J. System. Evol. Microbiol. 55:487-496.
  • Johnson, M.D., Oldach, D., Delwiche, C.F., and Stoecker, D.K. 2007. Retention of transcriptionally active cryptophyte nuclei by the ciliate Myrionecta rubra. Nature. 445:426-428.
  • Kilejian, A. 1975. Circular mitochondrial DNA from the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium lophurae. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 390:267-284.
  • Kuvardina, O.N., Leander, B.S., Aleshin, V.V., Mylnikov, A. P., Keeling, P.J. & Simdyanov, T. G. 2002. The phylogeny of colpodellids (Eukaryota, Alveolata) using small subunit rRNA genes suggests they are the free-living ancestors of apicomplexans. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 49:498-504.
  • Leander, B. S. and P. J. Keeling. 2003. Morphostasis in alveolate evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 18(8):395-402.
  • Leander, B. S. and P. J. Keeling. 2004. Early evolutionary history of dinoflagellates and apicomplexans (Alveolata) inferred from HSP90 and actin phylogenies. J. Phycol. 40:341-250.
  • Leander, B.S., Kuvardina, O.N., Aleshin, V.V., Mylnikov, A.P. and Keeling, P.J. 2003. Molecular phylogeny and surface morphology of Colpodella edax (Alveolata): Insights into the phagotrophic ancestry of apicomplexans. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol., 50:334-340.
  • Matsuzaki, M., Kuroiwa, H., Kuroiwa, T., et al. 2008, A cryptic algal group unveiled: A plastid biosynthesis pathway in the oyster parasite Perkinsus marinus. Mol. Biol. Evol. 25:1167-1179.
  • McFadden, G.I. and R.F. Waller.1997: Plastids in parasites of humans. Bioessays 19:1033-1040.
  • McFadden, G.I. et al. 1996. Plastid in human parasites. Nature 381:482.
  • Mignot, J. P. and Brugerolle, G. 1975. Étude ultrastructurale du flagellé phagotrophe Colponema loxodes Stein. Protistologica, 11:429-444.
  • Moore, R.B., Obornik, M., Janouskovec, J., Chrudimsky, T., Vancova, M., Green, D.H., Wright, S.W., Davies, N.W., Bolch, C.J.S., Heimann, K., Slapeta, J., Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Logsdon, J.M. and Carter, D.A. (2008) A photosynthetic alveolate closely related to apicomplexan parasites. Nature. 451:959-963.
  • Mylnikov, A. P. 1991. The ultrastructure and biology of some representatives of order Spiromonadida (Protozoa). Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 70:5-15.
  • Mylnikov, A. P. 2000. The new marine carnivorous flagellate Colpodella pontica (Colpodellida, Protozoa). Zoologichesky Zhurnal, 79:261-266.
  • Norén, F., Moestrup, O. and Rehnstam-Holm, A.-S. 1999. Parvilucifera infectans Norén et Moestrup gen. et sp. nov. (Perkinsozoa phylum nov.): a parasitic flagellate capable of killing toxic microalgae. Europ. J. Protistol., 35:233-254.
  • Perkins, F. O. 1976. Zoospores of the oyster pathogen, Dermocystidium marinum. I. Fine structure of the conoid and other sporozoan-like organelles. J. Parasitol., 62:959-974.
  • Perkins, F. O. 1996. The structure of Perkinsus marinus (Mackin, Owen and Collier, 1950) Levine, 1978 with comments on the taxonomy and phylogeny of Perkinsus spp. J. Shell. Res., 15:67-87.
  • Reece, K.S. et al. 1997. Phylogenetic analysis of Perkinsus based on actin gene sequences. J. Parasitol. 83:417-423.
  • Saldarriaga, J. F., McEwan, M. L., Fast, N. M., Talyor, F. J. R. and Keeling, P. J. 2003. Multiple protein phylogenies show that Oxyrrhis marina and Perkinsus marinus are early branches of the dinoflagellate lineage. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.: 53:355-365.
  • Saldarriaga, J.F. et al. (2001) Dinoflagellate nuclear SSU rDNA phylogeny suggests multiple plastid losses and replacements. J. Mol. Evol. 53, 204-213.
  • Shalchian-Tabrizi, K., Minge, M.A., Cavalier-Smith, T., Nedreklepp, J.M., Klaveness, D., and Jakobsen, K.S. 2006. Combined heat shock protein 90 and ribosomal RNA sequence phylogeny supports multiple replacements of dinoflagellate plastids. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 53:217-224.
  • Siddall, M. E., Reece, K. S., Graves, J. E. and Burreson, E. M. 1997. “Total evidence” refutes the inclusion of Perkinsus species in the phylum Apicomplexa. Parasitology, 115:165-176.
  • Siddall, M. E., Reece, K. S., Nerad, T. A. and Burreson, E. M. 2001. Molecular determination of the phylogenetic position of a species in the genus Colpodella. Am. Mus. Nov., 3314:1-10.
  • Silberman, J.D., Collins, A.G., Gershwin, L.A., Johnson, P.J. and Roger, A.J. 2004. Ellobiopsids of the genus Thalassomyces are alveolates. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 51:246-252.
  • Simpson, A. G. B. and Patterson, D. J. 1996. Ultrastructure and identification of the predatory flagellate Colpodella pugnax Cienkowski (Apicomplexa) with a description of Colpodella turpis n. sp. and a review of the genus. Syst. Parasitol., 33:187-198.
  • Stoecker, D.K. (1999) Mixotrophy among dinoflagellates. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 46:397-401.
  • Taylor, F.J.R. (1987) The Biology of Dinoflagellates, Blackwell Scientific Publications.
  • Teles-Grilo, M.L., Tato-Costa, J., Duarte, S.M., et al. 2007. Is there a plastid in Perkinsus atlanticus (Phylum Perkinsozoa)? Europ. J. Protistol. 43:163-167.
  • Wilson, R.J. et al. 1996. Complete gene map of the plastid-like DNA of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. J. Mol. Biol. 261:155-172.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!