The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Coatney GR, Collins WE, Warren M, Contacos PG. 1971. The Primate Malarias. US Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Bethesda.
  • Cornejo OE, Escalante AA. 2006. The origin and age of Plasmodium vivax. Trends Parasitol. 22(12):558-63.
  • Corredor V, Enea V. 1993. Plasmodial ribosomal RNA as phylogenetic probe: a cautionary note. Mol. Biol. Evol. 10:924-926.
  • Escalante AA, Ayala FJ. 1994. Phylogeny of the malarial genus Plasmodium, derived from rRNA gene sequences. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91:11373-11377.
  • Escalante AA, Barrio E, Ayala FJ. 1995. Evolutionary origin of human and primate malarias: evidence from the circumsporozoite protein. Mol. Biol. Evol. 12:616-626.
  • Escalante AA, Freeland DE, Collins, WE, Lal AA. 1998. The evolution of primate malaria parasites based on the gene encoding cytochrome b from the linear mitochondrial genome. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:8124-8129.
  • Escalante AA, Goldman IF, De Rijk P, De Wachter R, Collins WE, Qari SH, Lal. AA 1997. Phylogenetic study of the genus Plasmodium based on the secondary structure-based alignment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA. Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 90:317-321.
  • Fortschr. Med., 3, no. 24, 791.
  • Hughes MK, Hughes AL. 1995. Natural selection on Plasmodium surface proteins. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 71(1):99-113.
  • Kedzierski L, Escalante AA, Isea R, Black CG, Barnwell JW, Coppel RL. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of the genus Plasmodium based on the gene encoding adenylosuccinate lyase. Infect Genet Evol. 1(4):297-301.
  • Leclerc MC, Hugot JP, Durand P, Renaud F. Evolutionary relationships between 15 Plasmodium species from new and old world primates (including humans): an 18S rDNA cladistic analysis. 2004. Parasitology. 129(6):677-84.
  • Martinsen ES, Perkins SL, Schall JJ. 2008. A three-genome phylogeny of malaria parasites (Plasmodium and closely related genera): Evolution of life-history traits and host switches. Mol Phylogenet Evol 47(1):261-273.
  • McCutchan TF, Kissinger JC, Touray MG, Rogers MJ, Li J, Sullivan M, Braga EM, Krettli AU, Miller LH. 1996.Comparison of circumsporozoite proteins from avian and mammalian malarias: biological and phylogenetic implications. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 93:11889-94.
  • Oguike, M C., Betson M., Burke M., Nolder D., Stothard R. J., Kleinschmidt I., et al. (2011). Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri circulate simultaneously in African communities. International Journal for Parasitology. 41(6), 677 - 683.
  • Perez-Tris J, Hasselquist D, Hellgren O, Krizanauskiene A, Waldenstrom J, Bensch S. 2005. What are malaria parasites? Trends Parasitol. 21(5):209-11.
  • Perkins SL, Sarkar IN, Carter R. 2007. The phylogeny of rodent malaria parasites: simultaneous analysis across three genomes. Infect Genet Evol. 7(1):74-83.
  • Perkins SL, Schall JJ. 2002. A molecular phylogeny of malarial parasites recovered from cytochrome b gene sequences. J Parasitol. 88(5):972-8.
  • Qari SH, Shi YP, Pieniazek NJ, Collins WE, Lal AA. 1996. Phylogenetic Relationship among the Malaria Parasites Based on Small Subunit rRNA Gene Sequences: Monophyletic Nature of the Human Malaria Parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Mol. Phylo. Evol. 6(1)157-165.
  • Sutherland, C J.., Tanomsing N., Nolder D., Oguike M., Jennison C., Pukrittayakamee S., et al. (2010). Two Nonrecombining Sympatric Forms of the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium ovale Occur Globally. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 201(10), 1544 - 1550.
  • Vaidya AB, Lashgari MS, Pologe LG, Morrisey J. 1993. Structural features of Plasmodium cytochrome b that may underlie susceptibility to 8-aminoquinolines and hydroxynaphthoquinones. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 58(1):33-42.
  • Vargas-Serrato E, Corredor V, Galinski MR. 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of CSP and MSP-9 gene sequences demonstrates the close relationship of Plasmodium coatneyi to Plasmodium knowlesi. Infect. Genet. Evol. 3(1):67-73.
  • Waters AP, Higgins DG, McCutchan TF. 1991. Plasmodium falciparum appears to have arisen as a result of a lateral transfer between avian and human hosts. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:3140-3144
  • Waters AP, Higgins DG, McCutchan TF. 1993. Evolutionary relatedness of some primate models of Plasmodium. Mol Biol Evol. 10(4):914-23.
  • White NJ. 2003. Malaria, pp. 1205-1296. In G. C. Cook, and A. Zumla (ed.), Mansonís Tropical Diseases, 21st ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia.


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