Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Dendrobates castaneoticus, or the Brazil-nut Poison Frog, is among the smallest of the poison dart frogs, with a snout-vent length (SVL) ranging from 18-23 mm. This species varies little in color, size, and pattern across its range in northeastern South America. The body color is a glossy black with white to yellow spots or tick marks on the dorsal surface, which may appear as partial lines in some individuals. The area of insertion of the forelimbs to the body and the hind limbs above and below the knee joint are marked with bright orange or yellow spots. These spots may serve to distract or confuse predators when the frog is in motion. When at rest, the spots on the hind limb appear to be a single large spot. One additional spot appears on the under side of the calf, but is only visible from a ventral view. This species completely lacks an inner metacarpal tubercle. Adult females are usually larger than males, and only the males are capable of calling.

The common name “Brazil-nut Poison Frog” comes from this frog’s proclivity for depositing its tadpoles in the fruit capsules of brazil nut trees. This behavior is part of a complex and interesting system involving many species. The brazil-nut fruit falls from the tree and the outer husk is chewed open by a large mammal such as an agouti. The agouti removes the edible insides of the fruit capsule leaving it hollow. The capsule then fills with rainwater and becomes prime breeding ground for many different tiny creatures such as dart frogs, toads, mosquitoes, and other insects. Each of these larvae are potential predators of one another, and survival depends on their ability to compete as well as the timing of their deposition.

  • Caldwell, J. P. and Myers, C. W. (1990). ''A new poison frog from Amazonian Brazil: with further revision of the quinquevittatus group of Dendrobates.'' American Museum Novitates, 2988, 1-21.
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Distribution

Distribution and Habitat

Dendrobates castaneoticus occurs in the primary lowland forest near Cachoeira Juruá, Rio Xingu and the Tapajos drainage, State of Pará, Brazil. Though rarely collected, the distance between these two major collection sites suggests a rather broad distribution. Active only by day, they forage mainly in the leaf-litter at ground level and are rarely found far above the ground.

  • Caldwell, J. P. and Myers, C. W. (1990). ''A new poison frog from Amazonian Brazil: with further revision of the quinquevittatus group of Dendrobates.'' American Museum Novitates, 2988, 1-21.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats
Specimen Records:11
Specimens with Sequences:17
Specimens with Barcodes:10
Species:3
Species With Barcodes:3
Public Records:4
Public Species:2
Public BINs:2
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Barcode data

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Conservation

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

Dendrobates castaneoticus is an insectivore and feeds primarily on ants, termites and other small insects. Although clutches containing up to 12 eggs have been reported, the female usually lays 2-6 eggs, which are cared for by the male. When the tadpoles hatch they are deposited individually in small pools of water, which has collected in logs, tree holes, Brazil nut husks, or other debris. The tadpoles are large and aggressive and will devour any insect larvae, tadpoles, or plant matter of appropriate size. Young frogs grow quickly and may reach maturity as early as 5-7 months.

  • Caldwell, J. P. and Myers, C. W. (1990). ''A new poison frog from Amazonian Brazil: with further revision of the quinquevittatus group of Dendrobates.'' American Museum Novitates, 2988, 1-21.
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Threats

Life History, Abundance, Activity, and Special Behaviors

This frog is not listed as endangered, but little data exists to verify the size of the wild population. Overexploitation for pet trade, habitat destruction resulting from deforestation and agriculture may ultimately leady to a reduction in populations and/or individual numbers.

  • Caldwell, J. P. and Myers, C. W. (1990). ''A new poison frog from Amazonian Brazil: with further revision of the quinquevittatus group of Dendrobates.'' American Museum Novitates, 2988, 1-21.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Relation to Humans

This species has begun to show up more commonly in captive collections, and is gaining popularity in the pet trade, with captive bred specimens selling for over 100 dollars (U.S.).

  • Caldwell, J. P. and Myers, C. W. (1990). ''A new poison frog from Amazonian Brazil: with further revision of the quinquevittatus group of Dendrobates.'' American Museum Novitates, 2988, 1-21.
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Wikipedia

Adelphobates

Adelphobates is a small genus of poison dart frogs. They are found in the central and lower Amazon basin of Peru and Brazil, possibly Bolivia.[2] It was originally erected as a sister group to the Dendrobates and Oophaga genera.[1] The validity of the genus is still being discussed, with the alternative being "Dendrobates galactonotus group" within Dendrobates.[2] One species originally placed in this genus as Adelphobates captivus has since been moved to the Excidobates genus erected in 2008.[3]

Etymology[edit]

Adelphobates is from the Ancient Greek, adelphos (brother or twin) and bates (walker or climber).[1] "Brothers" refers to Charles W. Myers and John W. Daly, two unrelated scientists directly involved with studies of the species.

Biology[edit]

All members have conspicuous, vibrant coloration, and smooth skin.[1] A peculiar feature of their reproduction is that tadpoles are transported to Brazil nut capsules lying on the forest floor. Cannibalism may result if more than one tadpole end up in the same capsule.[4]

Species[edit]

There are three species:[2][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Grant, T., Frost, D. R., Caldwell, J. P., Gagliardo, R., Haddad, C. F. B., Kok, P. J. R., Means, D. B., Noonan, B. P., Schargel, W. E., and Wheeler, W. C. (2006). "Phylogenetic systematics of dart-poison frogs and their relatives (Amphibia: Athesphatanura: Dendrobatidae)". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 299: 1–262. doi:10.1206/0003-0090(2006)299[1:PSODFA]2.0.CO;2. 
  2. ^ a b c Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Adelphobates Grant, Frost, Caldwell, Gagliardo, Haddad, Kok, Means, Noonan, Schargel, and Wheeler, 2006". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  3. ^ Frost, Darrel R. (2014). "Excitobates Twomey and Brown, 2008". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
  4. ^ Vitt, Laurie J.; Caldwell, Janalee P. (2014). Herpetology: An Introductory Biology of Amphibians and Reptiles (4th ed.). Academic Press. p. 490. 
  5. ^ "Dendrobatidae". AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. Berkeley, California: AmphibiaWeb. 2014. Retrieved 13 September 2014. 
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