The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (February, 2008) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 10. Braley, R.D. (1992) The Giant Clam: Hatchery and Nursery Culture Manual. ACIAR Monograph No. 15, Canberra.
  • 11. Norton, J.H., Braley, R.D. and Anderson, I.G. (1993) A quarantine protocol to prevent the spread of parasitic diseases of giant clams (Tridacnidae) via translocation. In: Fitt, W. Ed. The Biology and Mariculture of Giant Clams. ACIAR Proceedings No. 47, Canberra.
  • 2. Spalding, M.D., Ravilious, C. and Green, E.P. (2001) World Atlas of Coral Reefs. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • 3. CITES (August, 2002) External link.
  • 4. Wye, K. (1991) The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Shells. Quintet Publishing Limited, London.
  • 5. Mead and Beckett Publishing. (1984) Reader's Digest Book of the Great Barrier Reef. Reader's Digest, Sydney.
  • 6. Animal Diversity Web (August, 2002)$narrative.html$narrative.html External link.
  • 7. Braley, R.D. (2008) Pers. Comm.
  • 8. Norton, J.H. and Jones, G.W. (1992) The Giant Clam: An Anatomical and Histological Atlas. ACIAR Monograph, Canberra.
  • 9. Monterey Bay Aquarium (August, 2002) External link.
  • Accessed (Date Unknown) at
  • Bouchet P., Gofas S. & Rosenberg G. (2015). WoRMS Mollusca: World Marine Mollusca database (version Feb 2013). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Carlos, A., B. Baillie, T. Maruyama. 2000. Diversity of dinoflagellate symbionts (zooxanthellae) in a host individual.. Marine Ecology Press Series, 195: 93-100.
  • Dautzenberg, Ph. 1929. Contribution à l'étude de la faune de Madagascar: Mollusca marina testacea. Faune des colonies françaises, III(fasc. 4). Société d'Editions géographiques, maritimes et coloniales: Paris. 321-636, plates IV-VII pp.
  • Huber M. 2010. Compendium of bivalves. A full-color guide to 3,300 of the world’s marine bivalves. A status on Bivalvia after 250 years of research. Hackenheim: ConchBooks. 901
  • Schneider, J., D. O Foighil. 1999. Phylogeny of giant clams (Cardiidae: Tridacninae) based on partial mitochondrial 16S rDNA gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 13: 59-66.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!