The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Cutler, E. B. 1994. The Sipuncula, their systematics, biology, and evolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.
  • Cutler, Edward B. 1994. The Sipuncula: Their Systematics, Biology, and Evolution. xvii + 453
  • Maxmena, A. B., B. F. King, E. B. Cutler and G. Giribet. 2003. Evolutionary relationships within the protostome phylum Sipuncula: a molecular analysis of ribosomal genes and histone H3 sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27(3):489-503.
  • Schulze, A., E. B. Cutler and G. Giribet. 2005. Reconstructing the phylogeny of the Sipuncula. Hydrobiologia 535/536:277–296.
  • Schulze, A., E. B. Cutler and G. Giribet. 2007. Phylogeny of sipunculan worms: A combined analysis of four gene regions and morphology. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 42(1):171-192.
  • WoRMS (2004). Phascolosomatidea. In: Saiz, J. (2016). World Sipuncula database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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