The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Boisserie, J., F. Lihoreau, M. Brunet. 2005. The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 102: 1537-1541.
  • Carey, J., D. Judge. 2002. "Longevity Records: Life Spans of Mammals, Birds, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Fish" (On-line). Accessed September 14, 2005 at
  • Gatesy, J. 1997. More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: The blood-clotting protein gene Y-Fibrinogen. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 14(5): 537-543.
  • Gatesy, J., C. Hayashi, M. Cronin, P. Arctander. 1996. Evidence from milk casein genes that cetaceans are close relatives of hippopotamid artiodactyls. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 13(7): 954-963.
  • Gatesy, J., M. Milinkovitch, V. Waddell, M. Stanhope. 1999. Stability of cladistic relationships between Cetacea and higher-level artiodactyl taxa. Systematic Biology, 48(1): 6-20.
  • George, J., J. Bada, J. Zeh, L. Scott, S. Brown. 1999. ge and Growth Estimates of Bowhead Whales (Balaena mysticetus) Via Aspartic Acid Racemization. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 78: 1182-1198.
  • Graur, D., D. Higgins. 1994. Molecular evidence for the inclusion of cetaceans within the order Artiodactyla. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 11(3): 357-364.
  • IUCN, 2004. "2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species" (On-line). Accessed September 14, 2005 at
  • Milinkovitch, M., J. Thewissan. 1997. Even-toed fingerprints on whale ancestry. Nature, 388: 622-624.
  • Montgelard, C., F. Catzeflis, E. Douzery. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S rRNA mitochondrial sequences. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 14(5): 550-559.
  • Naylor, G., D. Adams. 2001. Are the fossil data really at odds with the molecular data? Morphological evidence for Cetartiodactyla phylogeny reexamined. Systematic Biology, 50(3): 444-453.
  • Nowak, R. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World, vol. II. Baltimore and London: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • O'Leary, M., J. Geisler. 1999. The position of Cetacea within Mammalia: Phylogenetic analysis of morphological data from extinct and extant taxa. Systematic Biology, 48(3): 455-490.
  • Rice, D. 1984. Cetaceans. Pp. 447-490 in S Anderson, J Jones Jr., eds. Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Roberts, L., J. Janovy, Jr.. 2000. Foundations of Parasitology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
  • Shimamura, M., H. Yasue, K. Ohshima, H. Abe, H. Kato, T. Kishiro, M. Goto, I. Munechika, N. Okada. 1997. Molecular evidence from retroposons that whales form a clade within even-toed ungulates. Nature, 388: 666-670.
  • Simpson, C. 1984. Artiodactyls. Pp. 563-587 in S Anderson, J Jones Jr., eds. Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Thewissen, J., E. Williams, S. Hussain. 2001. Skeletons of terrestrial cetaceans and the relationship of whales to artiodactyls. Nature, 413: 277-281.


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