The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1876. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.
  • Aguilera, M. 2011. Researchers identify mysterious life forms in the Extreme Deep. Scripps News. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA.
  • Brady, H. B. 1884. Report on the Foraminifera collected by H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-
  • Danovaro R, Company JB, Corinaldesi C, D'Onghia G, Galil B, et al. 2010. Deep-Sea Biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea: The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable. PLoS ONE 5(8): e11832. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011832
  • Gooday, A. J., A. Aranda da Silva, and J. Pawlowski. 2011. Xenophyophores (Rhizaria, Foraminifera) from the Nazaré Canyon (Portuguese margin, NE Atlantic). Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 58(23-24):2401–2419.
  • Haeckel, E. 1889. Report on the Deep-Sea Keratosa collected by H. M. S. Challenger during the years 1873-1876. Pp. 1-92, pls. 1-8. Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76. Eyre & Spottiswoode, London, UK.
  • Marshall, M. 2010. Zoologger: "Living beach ball" is giant single cell. New Scientist.
  • McClain, C. R. 2008. The 27 Best Deep-Sea Species: #22 Xenophyophores. In C. R. McClain, ed. Deep Sea News. Wordpress.
  • Pawlowski, J., M. Holzmann, J. Fahrni, and S. L. Richardson. 2003. Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula is a foraminiferan. Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 50(6):483-487.
  • Schaechter, M. 2013. Let's start out big. Small Things Considered: The Microbe Blog. American Society for Microbiology.
  • Tendal, O. S. 1972. A Monograph of the Xenophyophoria. Galathea Report 12:7-99.


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