Comprehensive Description

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“Genus Paradoloria n. gen.



This genus has been established to include a number of species, distinguished by a combination of the following characters: first and foremost the lacking of larger processes on the upper lip and an elongate endopodite of the second antenna, and further by the comparatively high numbers of cleaning bristles on the 7th limb and of teeth on the bristle of the 2nd joint of the 2nd antenna exopodite, all characters which also are found in the Genus Doloria – hence the name Paradoloria. The main difference between these two genera is that in Doloria the endopodite of the male second antenna is formed like a clasping organ, whereas in Paradoloria it is similar to that of the female. Other smaller differences, but holding good both for males and females are: Doloria 11-13 pairs of furcal claws – Paradoloria only 9-10; Doloria all furcal claws decrease gradually in size dorsally – Paradoloria the 3rd or/and the 4th fall behind the following claw in size.



In the genus Paradoloria are included the following 5 species all found in the present material:



Paradoloria dorsoserrata (G. W. Müller)


- nuda n. sp.


- australis n. sp.


- angulata n. sp.


- vanhöffeni (G. W. Müller)



The following species not present in this material are probably to be included in the genus:



Paradoloria capensis (Cleve)


- acorensis (Granata and Caporiacco)?



Cypridina gracilis Brady 1880 may possibly be included in the genus.


The following diagnosis of the genus is based on the first-mentioned five species.





Size of mature specimens: 1.9-4.2 mm.



Shell. The shell is compressed, i.e. seen from above or below rather narrow. The dorsal and ventral margins are boldly arched, the dorsal often more than the ventral. The rostrum is small, rounded anteriorly and with a more or less pointed, inferior corner. The incisor is small, in some specimens fairly deep and with a more or less pointed, inferior corner. The incisor is small, in some specimens fairly deep and narrow in others more open and broad; the form of the posterior margin varies considerably: It can form a low triangular process, a well-defined flange or it can be almost evenly rounded. The selvage is low, its margin is nearly even, never serrate; its cross-striation is only vague. The number of medial bristles on rostrum is large from 15-30, most of them are double-bristles, a fairly dense row of double-bristles are present on the anterior part of the ventral list; a number of these bristles may be strongly feathered.



First Antenna. This is as typical for the sub-family as far as number of joints and bristles on the joints are concerned. The bristles of the 3rd, 4th and 6th joints are comparatively long; the dorsal bristle of the 3rd joint is placed proximally of the middle of the margin. In the male the b- and c-bristles are provided with sucking organs on the three proximal filaments; the male c- and g-bristles have 10-15 filaments, but no dense clothing of thin hairy filaments.



Second Antenna. A medio-distal bristle is always developed and is fairly large, from a little longer than the shortest to as long as the longest of the proximal bristles of the endopodite. Except for this bristle the prodopodite is bare.



The endopodite is elongate – the length of the stem is always more than twice its width; in mature specimens it is distinctly 3-jointed, except in P. vanhöffeni where the suture between the 2nd and the 3rd joint is indistinct. Its 1st joint has 3-4 proximal bristles, of which one is about twice the length of the other, more distally is a single, fairly long, bristle; the 2nd joint has no bristles. The third joint has a long thread-like bristle often reaching nearly to the hind margin of the protopodite.



The exopodite is about as long as the protopodite. It has moderately large basal spines on the 3rd to the 8th joints; the basal spine of the 8th joint (the largest of the spines) is about 100-150% of the length of the 9th joint; the lateral spine on the 9th joint is between 100-200% of the length of the joint. The bristle of the 2nd joint is about as long as the 7 last joints of the exopodite; along its ventral margin is a dense row of fairly large, blunt teeth (20-35 in number); along the dorsal margin a shorter number of short hiars. The most proximal part of the bristle is bare, without long hairs. The natatory bristles of the 3rd to the 9th joints, have only long natatory hairs, no spines; the 9th joint has 4 bristles.



Mandible. The coxale endite is provided with two strong, distal spines. Basale has ventrally 2-3 a-bristles, short or rather short, no or one b-bristles, two c-bristles, one short and one about as long as the height of the joint; and two d-bristles, one very shrot and one very long and stout provided with several wreaths of long hairs. Dorsally are the 3 usual bristles. The exopodite and the 1st endopodite joint do not differ from the general pattern in the sub-family. The 2nd endopodite joint has dorsally 6-8 longer bristles and between 8 and 20 shorter bristles of which 3-6 are strongly pectinate. Ventrally are 2 single bristles and most distally a pair of slender, pointed bristles. The end-joint has 3 claws and 4 bristles; one or two of the claws are in some species pectinate, in others all are smooth.



Maxilla. Coxale has a rather stout, plumose bristle. The endopodite is broad, short, the cutting edge of its 1st joint is well developed with one or two rounded or slightly pointed processes. There are 2-3 alpha-bristles and 2 (rarely 3) beta-bristles; the alpha-bristles are slender, bare or with a few shorter hairs; the largest beta-bristle is strongly pectinate. The short end-joint of the endopodite bears the following numbers of bristles: 4 a-, 3 b-, 2-4 c-, and 3 d-bristles. In stoutness and in armature of spines and teeth these bristles vary rather much from species to species, but they are always comparatively slender and their teeth or spines are rather few and weak to moderately weak. The exopodite is large, flattened, with hiarred margins and surface; in some cases all three bristles are plumose, in other cases only the proximal and the outer of the two terminal bristles.



Fifth Limb. The limb does not differ from the general pattern in the sub-family.



Sixth Limb. There are 3-5 bristles on the “epipodial appendage”, one of them may be plumose. In the grown-up specimens the last joint has plumose bristles along the whole ventral margin, the two posterior ones are somewhat longer and a little stouter than the others.



Seventh Limb. This limb is characterized by its large number of cleaning bristles, 25-50 in all; there are about 10-25 comb-teeth; the jaw opposite the comb may have one or two low teeth; a peg is never present, and there are no cleaning bristles placed at the corner of comb and jaw.



The Copulatory Limbs are two-lobed, one of the lobes ending in a large hook; both lobes are provided with bristles or spines.



The Median Eye is present; the Frontal Organ is short, more or less bulb-shaped, and terminating in a short peg.



Furca has from 9-10 pairs of claws, all separated from the lamella (except in P. vanhöffeni, where the 2nd is united with the lamella); the third or the 4th is weaker than the following.



The Upper Lip has no larger processes.



The Back of the animal has in the male of P. dorsoserrata distinct transverse folds. Also the male of P. australis have such folds, but they are not as large as in dorsoserrata; males of nuda or angulata were not observed; the male of vanhöffeni has no folds.





The species of Paradoloria dealt with here are recorded from the region from the south coast of Australia (37°28’S) to the south of Japan (33° N), and were taken at much varying depth, 1 m-1000 m. The regional distribution is shown on Fig. 75 [in cited text]. P. dorsoserrata and vanhöffeni are recorded by G. W. Müller 1906 from Cape the Good Hope. The latter species was found in the “Galathea” material from off Cape of Good Hope and off Mombassa (SE-Africa).





To the genus Paradoloria, as described above, belongs most probably Cypridina (Doloria) acorensis Granata and Caporiacco 1949 and Cypridina capensis Cleve 1905; and possibly Cypridina gracilis Brady 1880; all also recorded from tropical or near tropical waters.”



(Poulsen, 1962, 146-149)


Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

Source: Antarctic Invertebrates Website (NMNH)

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