The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1. IUCN Red List (May, 2009) http://www.iucnredlist.org External link.
  • 10. Seafriends (March, 2008) External link.
  • 2. Wells, S., Pyle, R.M. and Collins, N.M. (1984) The IUCN Invertebrate Red Data Book. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
  • 3. Keynes, Richard. (2000) Charles Darwin's zoology notes and specimen lists from H.M.S. Beagle. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
  • 4. McCormack, G. (2006) Pers. Comm.
  • 5. Altevogt, R. and Davis, T.A. (1975) Birgus latro India's monstrous crab. A study and an appeal. Bulletin of the Department of Marine Sciences, University of Cochin, 7: 11 - 23.
  • 6. Grubb, P. (1971) Ecology of terrestrial decapod crustaceans on Aldabra. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society: Biological Sciences, 260: 411 - 416.
  • 7. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (November, 2005) External link.
  • 8. Held, E.E. (1963) Moulting behaviour of Birgus latro. Nature, 200: 799 - 800.
  • 9. Cook Islands Natural Heritage Trust (May, 2006) External link.
  • Calman, W. T. 1911. Life of Crustacea. New York : the MacMillan Company; Plate 27
  • DESVIGNES Thomas, POUPIN Joseph, NOËL Pierre, SOHIER Sandra, in : DORIS, 29/1/2013 : Birgus latro (Linnaeus, 1767),
  • Fabrocois. J. C. 1798. Supplementum Entomologiae systematicae. Fabrocois. J. C., 1798. Supplementum Entomologiae systematicae.
  • Kessler, C. 2005. Observation of a coconut crab, Birgus latro (Linnaeus, 1767) predation on a Polynesian rat, Rattus exulans (Peale, 1848). Crustaceana 78(6):761-762. 10.1163/156854005774353485
  • Linnaeus, C. 1767. Ststema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, Synonymis, locis, Edition 12. Linnaeus, C, 1767. Ststema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, Synonymis, locis, Edition 12. 1(2):533-1327.
  • Ma K., Ji L., Qin H., Liu J.Y., Yao Y., Lin C., Yan H., Wang L., Qiao H., Li R. (eds) (2013). Catalogue of Life China (version 2012). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • McLaughlin, P. (2015). Birgus latro (Linnaeus, 1767). In: Lemaitre, R.; McLaughlin, P. (2015) World Paguroidea & Lomisoidea database. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Reese, ES. 1968. Shell Use: An Adaptation for Emigration from the Sea by the Coconut Crab. Science 161(3839):385-386. 10.1126/science.161.3839.385
  • Sato, T and K Yoseda. 2009. Egg extrusion site of coconut crab Birgus latro: direct observation of terrestrial egg extrusion. Marine Biodiversity Records 2:e37. doi:10.1017/S1755267209000426
  • Sato, T and K Yoseda. 2009. Prediction of timing of mating and egg extrusion in the coconut crab Birgus latro judged from female pleonal expansion. Fisheries Science 75(3):641-648. DOI: 10.1007/s12562-009-0093-1
  • W. A. Niering, Terrestrial ecology of Kapingamarangi Atoll, Caroline Islands, Ecol. Monogr. 33(2):131-160, from p. 157 (1963).
  • Wang Yong-Liang. 2008. Decapoda, Pleocyemata, Anomura. Wang Yong-Liang, 2008. Decapoda, Pleocyemata, Anomura. Checklist of Marine Biota of China Seas, Beijing:Science Press.
  • Wilde, JE, SM Linton, P Greenaway. 2004. Dietary assimilation and the digestive strategy of the omnivorous anomuran land crab Birgus latro (Coenobitidae). Journal of Comparative Physiology B 174(4): 299-308. DOI: 10.1007/s00360-004-0415-7


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