The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bishop, M. J., & A. E. Friday. 1987. Tetrapod relationships: the molecular evidence. In Patterson, C (ed.) Molecules and Morphology in Evolution: Conflict or Compromise?: 123-139. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Campbell, N. A. 1993. Biology. 3rd edition. New York: The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing.
  • Carroll, R. L. 1964. The earliest reptiles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 45: 61-83.
  • Coyne M. 1999. World's oldest reptile nest found. Marine Turtle Newsletter 83: 21.
  • Gaffney, E. S. 1980. Phylogenetic relationships of the major groups of amniotes. In A. L. Panchen (ed.) The Terrestrial Environment and the Origin of Land Vertebrates: 593-610. London: Academic Press.
  • Gauthier J., R. Estes, & K. de Queiroz. 1988a. A phylogenetic analysis of Lepidosauromorpha. In: R. Estes and G. Pregill (eds.) Phylogenetic relationships of the lizard families: 15-98. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Gauthier, J. A. 1994. The diversification of the amniotes. In D. R. Prothero and R. M. Schoch (ed.) Major Features of Vertebrate Evolution: 129-159. Knoxville: The Paleontological Society.
  • Gauthier, J., A. G. Kluge, & T. Rowe. 1988b. Amniote phylogeny and the importance of fossils. Cladistics 4: 105-209.
  • Gauthier, J., A. G. Kluge, & T. Rowe. 1988c. The early evolution of the Amniota. In M. J. Benton (ed.) The phylogeny and classification of the tetrapods, Volume 1: amphibians, reptiles, birds: 103-155. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Goodman, M., M. Miyamoto, & J. Czelusniak. 1987. Pattern and process in vertebrate phylogeny revealed by coevolution of molecules and morphologies. In C. Patterson (ed.) Molecules and Morphology in Evolution: Conflict or Compromise?: 141-176. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hedges S. B. & L. L. Poling. 1999. A molecular phylogeny of reptiles. Science 283: 998-1001.
  • Hedges, S. B. 1994. Molecular evidence for the origin of birds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 91:2621-2624.
  • Hedges, S. B., K. D. Moberg, & L. R. Maxson. 1990. Tetrapod phylogeny inferred from 18S and 28S ribosomal RNA sequences and a review of the evidence for amniote relationships. Molecular Biology and Evolution 7:607-633.
  • Kumazawa, Y., & M. Nishida. 1995. Variations in mitochondrial tRNA gene organization of reptiles as phylogenetic markers. Molecular Biology and Evolution 12:759-772.
  • Laurin M. & M. Girondot. 1999. Embryo retention in sarcopterygians, and the origin of the extra-embryonic membranes of the amniotic egg. Annales des Sciences Naturelles, Zoologie, Paris, 13e SÈrie 20: 99-104.
  • Laurin M. & R. R. Reisz. 1999. A new study of Solenodonsaurus janenschi, and a reconsideration of amniote origins and stegocephalian evolution. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 36: 1239-1255.
  • Laurin M., R. R. Reisz, & M. Girondot. 2000. Caecilian viviparity and amniote origins: a reply to Wilkinson and Nussbaum. Journal of Natural History 34: 311-315.
  • Laurin, M. & R. R. Reisz. 1995. A reevaluation of early amniote phylogeny. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 113: 165-223.
  • Lee M. S. Y. 1996. Correlated progression and the origin of turtles. Nature 379: 812-815.
  • Lee, M. S. Y. 1995. Historical burden in systematics and the interrelationships of 'Parareptiles'. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 70: 459-547.
  • Lee, M. The turtle's long-lost relatives. Natural History, April 1994, 63-65.
  • Lee, M., S. Y. 1993. The origin of the turtle body plan: bridging a famous morphological gap. Science 261: 1716-1720.
  • Lombardi J. 1994. Embryo retention and evolution of the amniote condition. Journal of Morphology 220: 368.
  • Mannen H. & S. S.-L. Li. 1999. Molecular evidence for a clade of turtles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 13: 144-148.
  • Mannen H., S. C.-M. Tsoi, J. S. Krushkal, W.-H. Li, & S. S.-L. Li. 1997. The cDNA cloning and molecular evolution of reptile and pigeon lactate dehydrogenase isozymes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 1081-1087.
  • Modesto S. P. 1999. Observations on the structure of the Early Permian reptile Stereosternum temidum Cope. Palaeontologia Africana 35: 7-19.
  • Reisz, R. R., & M. Laurin. 1991. Owenetta and the origin of turtles. Nature 349: 324-326.
  • Rieppel O. & M. deBraga. 1996. Turtles as diapsid reptiles. Nature 384: 453-455.
  • Rieppel O. & R. R. Reisz. 1999. The origin and early evolution of turtles. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30: 1-22.
  • Rieppel O. 1995. Studies on skeleton formation in reptiles: implications for turtle relationships. Zoology-Analysis of Complex Systems 98: 298-308.
  • Rieppel, O. 1994. Osteology of Simosaurus gaillardoti and the relationships of stem-group sauropterygia. Fieldiana Geology 1462: 1-85.
  • Smithson T. R. 1989. The earliest known reptile. Nature 342: 676-678.
  • Smithson T. R., R. L. Carroll, A. L. Panchen, & S. M. Andrews. 1994. Westlothiana lizziae from the VisÈan of East Kirkton, West Lothian, Scotland, and the amniote stem. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 84: 383-412.
  • Stewart J. R. 1997. Morphology and evolution of the egg of oviparous amniotes. In: S. Sumida and K. Martin (ed.) Amniote Origins-Completing the Transition to Land (1): 291-326. London: Academic Press.
  • deBraga M. & O. Rieppel. 1997. Reptile phylogeny and the interrelationships of turtles. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 281-354.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!