The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Amadon, D. 1947. An estimated weight of the largest known bird. Condor 49: 159-164.
  • Ansari, H., N. Kakagi, and M. Sasaki. 1988. Morphological differentiation of sex chromosomes in three species of ratite birds. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 47: 185-188.
  • Baccetti, B., A. G. Burrini, and E. Falchetti. 1991. Spermatozoa and relationships in palaeognath birds. Biology of the Cell 71: 209-216.
  • Bock, W. J., and P. Bühler. 1990. The evolution and biogeographical history of the palaeognathous birds. Pages 31-36 in Proceedings of the international centennial meeting of the Deutsche Ornithologen-Gesellschaft (R. van den Elzen, K.-L. Schuchmann and K. Schmidt-Koenig, eds.). Verlag der Deutschen Ornithologen-Gesellschaft, Bonn.
  • Caspers, G. J., J. Wattel, and W. W. de Jong. 1994. Alpha A-crystallin sequences group tinamou with ratites. Molecular Biology and Evolution 11: 711-713.
  • Cooper, A., C. Lalueza-Fox, S. Anderson, A. Rambaut, J. Austin, and R. Ward. 2001. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two extinct moas clarify ratite evolution. Nature 409: 704-707.
  • Cooper, A., C. Mourer-Chauviré, G. K. Chambers, A. von Haeseler, A. C. Wilson, and S. Pääbo. 1992. Independent origins of New Zealand moas and kiwis. Proceedings of the national Academy of Sciences of the USA 89: 8741-8744.
  • Cracraft, J. 1974. Phylogeny and evolution of the ratite birds. Ibis 116: 494-521.
  • Cubo, J. 2003. Evidence for speciational change in the evolution of ratites (Aves: Palaeognathae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 80: 99-106.
  • Davies, S. J. J. F. 1967. Sexual dimorphism in the emu. Emu 67: 23-26.
  • Davies, S. J. J. F. 2002. Ratites and Tinamous. Bird Families of the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.
  • Edwards, S. V., B. Fertil, A. Giron, and P. J. Deschavanne. 2002. A genomic schism in birds revealed by phylogenetic analysis of DNA strings. Systematic Biology 51: 599-613.
  • Elzanowski, A. 1995. Cretaceous birds and avian phylogeny. Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg 181:37-53.
  • Freitag, S., and T. J. Robinson. 1993. Phylogeographic patterns in mitochondrial DNA of the ostrich (Struthio camelus). Auk 110: 614-622.
  • García-Moreno, J., M. D. Sorenson, and D. P. Mindell. 2003. Congruent avian phylogenies inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 57: 27-37.
  • García-Moreno, J., and D. P. Mindell. 2000. Rooting a phylogeny with homologous genes on opposite sex chromosomes (gametologs): a case study using avian CHD. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17: 1826-1832.
  • Haddrath, O., and A. J. Baker. 2001. Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct birds: ratite phylogenetics and the vicariance biogeography hypothesis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Biological Sciences 268: 939-945.
  • Harrison, G. L., McLenachan, M. J. Phillips, K. E. Slack, A. Cooper, and D. Penny. 2004. Four new avian mitochondrial genomes help get to basic evolutionary questions in the late Cretaceous. Molecular Biology and Evolution 21: 974-983.
  • Harshman, J., E. L. Braun, M. J. Braun, C. J. Huddleston, R. C. K. Bowie, J. L. Chojnowski, S. J. Hackett, K.-L. Han, R. T. Kimball, B. D. Marks, K. J. Miglia, W. S. Moore, S. Reddy, F. H. Sheldon, D. W. Steadman, S. J. Steppan, C. C. Witt, and T. Yuri. 2008. Phylogenomic evidence for multiple losses of flight in ratite birds. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:13462-12467.
  • Houde, P. 1988. Paleognathous birds from the early Tertiary of the northern hemisphere, 22. Nuttall Ornithological Club, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Huyen, L., C. D. Millar, and D. M. Lambert. 2002. A DNA test to sex ratite birds. Molecular Ecology 11: 851-856.. Nature 425: 175-178.
  • Härlid, A., A. Janke, and U. Arnason. 1997. The mtDNA sequence of the ostrich and the divergence between Paleognathous and Neognathous birds. Molecular Biology and Evolution 14: 754-761.
  • Jamieson, B. G. M. 2007. Avian spermatozoa: Structure and phylogeny. Pages 349-512 in B. G. M. Jamieson (ed.), Reproductive biology and phylogeny of birds, Science Publishers, Enfield, NH.
  • Lee, K., J. Feinstein, and J. Cracraft. 1997. The phylogeny of ratite birds: resolving conflicts between molecular and morphological data sets. Pp 173-208 in D. P. Mindell (ed.), Avian Molecular Evolution and Systematics. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Livezey, B. C., and R. L. Zusi. 2007. Higher-order phylogeny of modern birds (Theropoda, Aves: Neornithes) based on comparative anatomy. II. Analysis and discussion. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 149:1-95.
  • Mayr, G., and J. Clarke. 2003. The deep divergences of neornithine birds: a phylogenetic analysis of morphological characters. Cladistics 19: 527-553.
  • Osuga, D. T., and R. E. Feeney. 1968. Biochemistry of egg-white proteins of ratite group. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 124: 560-574.
  • Parkse, K. C., and G. A. Clark Jr. 1966. An additional character linking ratites and tinamous, and an interpretation of their monophyly. Condor 68: 459-471.
  • Phillips, M. J., G. C. Gibbs, E. A. Crimp, and D. Penny. 2010. Tinamous and moas flock together: Mitochondrial genome sequence analysis reveals independent losses of flight among ratites. Syst. Biol. 59:90-107.
  • Prager, E. M., A. C. Wilson, D. T. Osuga, and R. E. Feeney. 1976. Evolution of flightless land birds on southern continents: Transferrin comparison shows monophyletic origin of ratites. Journal of Molecular Evolution 8: 283-94.
  • Sibley, C. G., and C. Frelin. 1972. Egg-white protein evidence for ratite affinities. Ibis 114: 377-387.
  • Sibley, C. G., and J. A. Ahlquist. 1990. Phylogeny and classification of birds, Yale U. Press, New Haven.
  • Silynroberts, H., and R. M. Sharp. 1985. Preferred orientation if calcite in the ratite and tinamou eggshells. Journal of Zoology 205: 39-52.
  • Silynroberts, H., and R. M. Sharp. 1986. Preferred orientation if calcite in the Aepyornis eggshell. Journal of Zoology 208: 475-478.
  • Stapel, S. O., J. A. Leunissen, M. Versteeg, J. Wattel, and W. W. de Jong. 1984. Ratites as oldest offshoot of avian stem - evidence from alpha-crystallin A sequences. Nature 311: 257-259.
  • Tang, B., Y. H. Huang, L. Lin, X. X. Hu, J. Dong, P. Yao, L. Zhang, and N. Li. 2003. Isolation and characterization of 70 novel microsatellite markers from ostrich (Struthio camelus) genome. Genome 46: 833-840.
  • Weir, K. A., and C. A. Lunam. 2004. A histological study of emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) skin. Journal of Zoology 264: 259-266.
  • Zelenitsky, D. K., and S. P. Modesto. 2003. New information on the eggshell of ratites (Aves) and its phylogenetic implications. Canadian Journal of Zoology 81: 962-970.
  • de Boer, L. E. M. 1980. Do the chromosomes of the kiwi provide evidence for a monophyletic origin of the ratites? Nature 287: 84-85.
  • van Tuinen, M. C. G. Sibley, and S. B. Hedges. 1998. Phylogeny and biogeography of ratite birds inferred from DNA sequences of the mitochondrial ribosomal genes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 15: 370-376.
  • van Tuinen, M. C. G. Sibley, and S. B. Hedges. 2000. The early history of modern birds inferred from DNA sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal genes. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17: 451-457.


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